Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 681
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
A systematic review of transferable solution options for the environmental impacts of tidal lagoons Elliott, K., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Marine Mammal Behavioral Response to Tidal Turbine Sound Robertson, F., et al. June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of hydrokinetic turbine sound on the behavior of four species of fish within an experimental mesocosm Schramm, M., Bevelhimer, M., Scherelis, C. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Environmental impacts of tidal power schemes Wolf, J., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Tidal Energy Scenario Analysis: Holistic Stakeholder Considerations for Sustainable Development McTiernan, K. January 2017 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
A high-resolution hindcast of sea level and 3D currents for marine renewable energy applications: A case study in the Bay of Biscay Chiri, H., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) monitoring at the FORCE Test Site, Canada Melissa Oldreive, Dom Tollit, and Daniel J. Hasselman (FORCE) March 2019 Blog Article Tidal
Estimating the optimum size of a tidal array at a multi-inlet system considering environmental and performance constraints González-Gorbeña, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
A comprehensive insight into tidal stream energy farms in Iran Radfar, S., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics
Environmental Effects Monitoring Program Annual Report 2017 FORCE January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Localised anthropogenic wake generates a predictable foraging hotspot for top predators Lieber, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Birds, Seabirds
Fish, finances, and feasibility: Concerns about tidal energy development in the United States Dreyer, S., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Modelling impacts of tidal stream turbines on surface waves Li, X., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Turbine Collision Detection: A review of the state-of-the-art sensors and imaging systems for detecting mammal collisions Jha, S. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Tidal stream energy impacts on estuarine circulation Ramos, V., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Assessment of the impacts of tidal stream energy through high-resolution numerical modeling Ramos, V., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The impacts of tidal turbines on water levels in a shallow estuary Garcia-Oliva, M., Djordjević, S., Tabor, G. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Tidal stream energy impact on the transient and residual flow in an estuary: A 3D analysis Sanchez, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Tidal energy machines: A comparative life cycle assessment study Walker, S., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Life cycle comparison of a wave and tidal energy device Walker, S., Howell, R. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Life cycle assessment of the Seagen marine current turbine Douglas, C., Harrison, G., Chick, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The trade-off between tidal-turbine array yield and environmental impact: A habitat suitability modelling approach du Feu, R., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Invertebrates
Predictable changes in fish school characteristics due to a tidal turbine support structure Williamson, B., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Comparing nekton distributions at two tidal energy sites suggests potential for generic environmental monitoring Wiesebron, L., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
TidGen Power System Commercialization Project Final Technical Report ORPC Maine December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine renewables and coastal communities—Experiences from the offshore oil industry in the 1970s and their relevance to marine renewables in the 2010s Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics
Interaction between instream axial flow hydrokinetic turbines and uni-directional flow bedforms Hill, C., Musa, M., Guala, M. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal Farfield Environment
Empirical Determination of Severe Trauma in Seals from Collisions with Tidal Turbine Blade Onoufriou, J., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds, Marine Spatial Planning
Monitoring getijdenturbines Oosterscheldekering Jaarrapportage 2018 Leopold, M., Scholl, M. March 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Three‐dimensional movements of harbour seals in a tidally energetic channel: Application of a novel sonar tracking system Hastie, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Seapower GEMSTAR System March 2012 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Future policy implications of tidal energy array interactions Waldman, S., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Current Policy and Technology for Tidal Current Energy in Korea Ko, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Effects of a Tidal Lagoon on the Hydrodynamics of Swansea Bay, Wales, UK Horrillo-Caraballo, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Spatial Planning from an Irish perspective: Towards Best Practice in Integrated Maritime Governance Flannery, W. July 2011 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Analysing the potentials and effects of multi-use between tidal energy development and environmental protection and monitoring: A case study of the inner sound of the Pentland Firth Sangiuliano, S. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics
Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress Gillibrand, P., Walters, R., McIlvenny, J. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Winter and summer differences in probability of fish encounter (spatial overlap) with MHK devices Viehman, H., Boucher, T., Redden, A. August 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Refinements to the EFDC model for predicting the hydro-environmental impacts of a barrage across the Severn Estuary Zhou, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom Kolios, A., Read, G. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessing the impact of tidal stream energy extraction on the Lagrangian circulation Guillou, N., Chapalain, G. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Increased integration between innovative ocean energy and the EU habitats, species and water protection rules through Maritime Spatial Planning van Hees, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
3D modelling of the impacts of in-stream horizontal-axis Tidal Energy Converters (TECs) on offshore sandbank dynamics Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Agent-Based Modelling of fish collisions with tidal turbines Rossington, K., Benson, T. May 2019 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Alteration to the shallow-water tides and tidal asymmetry by tidal-stream turbines Potter, D January 2019 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal
The impacts of tidal energy development and sea-level rise in the Gulf of Maine Kresning, B., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Socio-Economics, Climate Change
Assessment of array shape of tidal stream turbines on hydro-environmental impacts and power output Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Simulation Study of Potential Impacts of Tidal Farm in the Eastern Waters of Chengshan Cape, China Liu, X., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Optimising tidal lagoons: an environmental focus Elliott, K. July 2019 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-Economics
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics, Aesthetics, Fishing, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Modeling effects of a tidal barrage on water quality indicator distribution in the Severn Estuary Gao, G., Falconer, R., Lin, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Lagoon Environmental Interactions: Regulator Perspective, Solution Options and Industry Challenges Mackinnon, K., Smith, H., Moore, F. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Simulating the environmental impact of tidal turbines on the seabed Vybulkova, L., Vezza, M., Brown, R. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating the potential impacts of tidal power schemes on estuarine waterbirds Burton, N., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Waterfowl
Underwater sound on wave & tidal test sites: improving knowledge of acoustic impact of Marine Energy Convertors Giry, C., Bald, J., Uriarte, A. June 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Turbines’ effects on water renewal within a marine tidal stream energy site Guillou, N., Thiébot, J., Chapalain, G. December 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Measuring waves and currents at the European marine energy centre tidal energy test site: Campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation Sellar, B., et al. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Optimisation of tidal turbine array layouts whilst limiting their hydro-environmental impact Phoenix, A., Nash, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment
Influence of Tidal Energy Converters on sediment dynamics in tidal channel Auguste, C., et al. September 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment
Baseline Presence of and Effects of Tidal Turbine Installation and Operations on Harbour Porpoise in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, Canada Tollit, D., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

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