Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 699
Title Authorsort descending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Evaluation of Behavior and Survival of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Enhancing Local Distinctiveness Fosters Public Acceptance of Tidal Energy: A UK Case Study Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
RiCORE Project January 2015 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Examining the Impacts of Tidal Energy Capture from an Ecosystem Services Perspective Leslie, H., Palmer, M. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Tidal Resource Extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential Impacts on Flow Regime and Sediment Transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma Martin-Short, R., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Transdisciplinary Sustainability Science Research for the Responsible Development of Tidal Power Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
The Cumulative Impact of Tidal Stream Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Flocculation and Sediment Deposition in a Hypertidal Creek O'Laughlin, C., van Proosdij, D., Milligan, T. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
D2.2 Collation of Tidal Test Options McCombes, T., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.7 Tidal Measurement Best Practice Manual Elsaesser, B., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.16 Tidal Test Parameter Overview Germain, G. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.18 Tidal Data Analysis Best Practice Grant, A., McCombes, T., Johnstone, C. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
MR3 Methods for Tracking Fine Scale Movements of Marine Mammals around Marine Tidal Devices McConnell, B., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewables December 2013 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Macrotidal Estuaries: A Region of Collision Between Migratory Marine Animals and Tidal Power Development Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Proceedings of the 4th Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2015 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Volume I: Environmental Assessment AECOM June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site: Environmental Appraisal European Marine Energy Centre August 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd SR250 Deployment Fall of Warness: Environmental Statement Volume II - Appendices Scotrenewables Tidal Power October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Comparison of Underwater Background Noise during Spring and Neap Tide in a High Tidal Current Site: Ramsey Sound Broudic, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish
Shapinsay Sound Tidal Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Additional Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Modelling Techniques for Underwater Noise Generated by Tidal Turbines in Shallow Waters Lloyd, T., Turnock, S., Humphrey, V. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Measurement of Long-Term Ambient Noise and Tidal Turbine Levels in the Bay of Fundy Martin, B., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sediment-Generated Noise and Bed Stress in a Tidal Channel Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise
Confusion Reigns? A Review of Marine Megafauna Interactions with Tidal-Stream Environments Benjamins, S., et al. August 2015 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Hydrokinetic Turbine Models in Complex Channel Topography: Local Scour, Sediment Transport and Device Performance Hill, C., et al. July 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Annex I: Movements and Diving Behaviour of Juvenile Grey Seals in Areas of High Tidal Energy Thompson, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Towards Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals at a Tidal Turbine Site: Grand Passage, NS, Canada Malinka, C., Hay, A., Cheel, R. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
A Scenario-Based Approach to Evaluating Potential Environmental Impacts Following a Tidal Barrage Installation Kidd, I., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Ecosystem
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
An Integrated Solution to Real Time Marine Mammal Monitoring for Tidal Turbines Bromley, P., Boake, C., Broudic, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Marine Mammals
Surveying Marine Mammals in Nearby Tidal Energy Development Sites: a Comparison Benjamins, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals
MR7.2.1 Collision Risk: A Brief Review of Available Information on Behaviour of Mammals and Birds in High Tidal Energy Areas Onoufriou, J., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
MR7.2.2 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Examination of Models for Estimating the Risk of Collisions Between Seals and Tidal Turbines Lonergan, M., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MR7.2.3 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Field Tests of Turbine Blade-Seal Carcass Collisions Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth and Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Impact of Scaled Tidal Stream Turbine over Mobile Sediment Beds Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Remote Detection of Sea Surface Roughness Signatures Related to Subsurface Bathymetry, Structures and Tidal Stream Turbine Wakes Bell, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Hydrodynamic Response to Large Scale Tidal Energy Extraction Brown, A., Neill, S. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 2: In-Line Wake Effects Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 3: Acoustic Characteristics Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Numerical Modeling of the Impact Response of Tidal Devices and Marine Mammals Grear, M., Motley, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
A World First: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
A Finite Element Circulation Model for Embayments with Drying Intertidal Areas and its Application to the Quoddy Region of the Bay of Fundy Greenberg, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Tidal-Stream Energy Resource in Passamaquoddy-Cobscook Bays: A Fresh Look at an Old Story Brooks, D. November 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Installation of Tidal Turbine Array at Kyle Rhea, Scotland: Scoping Study Bedford, G., Tarrant, D., Trendall, J. March 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Sea Generation January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Estimates of Collision Risk of Harbour Porpoises and Marine Renewable Energy Devices at Sites of High Tidal-Stream Energy Wilson, B., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Using Drifting Passive Echolocation Loggers to Study Harbour Porpoises in Tidal-Stream Habitats Wilson, B., Benjamins, S., Elliot, J. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
An Evaluation of the Use of Shore-Based Surveys for Estimating Spatial Overlap between Deep-Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines Waggitt, J., Bell, P., Scott, B. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds
Whale To Turbine Impact Using The GPU Based SPH-LSM Method Longshaw, S., Stansby, P., Rogers, B. June 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
HS1000 1 MW Tidal Turbine at EMEC: Supporting Documentation Xodus AURORA August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Strangford Lough and the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Savidge, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada [Presentation] Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Fuzzy Impact Assessment on the Landscape: The Kobold Platform in the Strait of Messina Case Study Bergamascoa, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Proceedings of the 2nd Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Proceedings of the 3rd Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford April 2014 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Proceedings of the Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2012 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Impact of Tidal Energy Arrays Located in Regions of Tidal Asymmetry Neill, S. March 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
What Should a Condition Monitoring System Look like for a Tidal Turbine? Marnoch, J. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Detecting Potential and Actual Turbine-Marine Life Interactions: A Call for the Development of Best Practices Redden, A. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
GHYDRO: Methodology Guide for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Technologies at Sea Lejart, M. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Improvements to Probabilistic Tidal Turbine-Fish Interaction Model Parameters Tomichek, C., Colby, J., Adonizio, M. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines: What are the Issues of Concern and how are they being Resolved? Wilson, B., Hastie, G., Benjamins, S. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Multi-Disciplinary Risk Identification and Evaluation for the Tidal Industry Kolios, A., Read, G., Loannou, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
A Review of Marine Bird Diving Behaviour: Assessing Underwater Collision Risk with Tidal Turbines Robbins, A., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Converter (TEC) Arrays in Relation to the Natural Variability of Sedimentary Processes Robins, P., Neill, S., Lewis, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Potential Environmental Impact of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Pentland Firth at Large Spatial Scales: Results of a Biogeochemical Model van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Greenwood, N. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Tracking Technologies for Quantifying Marine Mammal Interactions with Tidal Turbines: Pitfalls and Possibilities Hastie, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Advancing a Key Consenting Risk for Tidal Energy: The Risk of Marine Mammal Collision for In-Stream Tidal Energy Devices Booth, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Understanding the Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with a Tidal Turbine Copping, A., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
OCGen Module Mooring Design Marnagh, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sea Bed Morphology Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H. June 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Modelling the Response of Sandbank Dynamics to Tidal Energy Extraction Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
A Comparison of Numerical Modelling Techniques for Tidal Stream Turbine Analysis Masters, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Energy, Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals Carter, C., Wilson, B., Burrows, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals

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