Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort ascending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Tidal Resource Extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential Impacts on Flow Regime and Sediment Transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma Martin-Short, R., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Tidal Stream Turbines on the Hydrodynamics and the Sediment Transport - Application to the Alderney Race (Raz Blanchard), France Thiébot, J., de Bois, P., Guillou, S. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device Shen, H., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
A Modeling Study of the Potential Water Quality Impacts from In-Stream Tidal Energy Extraction Wang, T., Yang, Z., Copping, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Using Hydroacoustics to Understand Fish Presence and Vertical Distribution in a Tidally Dynamic Region Targeted for Energy Extraction Viehman, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Tidal Power Development in Maine: Stakeholder Identification and Perceptions of Engagement Johnson, T., Jansujwicz, J., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
The Regulation of Tidal Energy Development Off Nova Scotia: Navigating Foggy Waters Doelle, M., et al. September 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
A Tidal Power Project Wright, G. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Diving Behaviour of Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential for Interactions with Tidal Stream Energy Developments Masden, E., Foster, S., Jackson, A. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds
Evaluation of Behavior and Survival of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Current tidal power technologies and their suitability for applications in coastal and marine areas Roberts, A., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Enhancing Local Distinctiveness Fosters Public Acceptance of Tidal Energy: A UK Case Study Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Examining the Impacts of Tidal Energy Capture from an Ecosystem Services Perspective Leslie, H., Palmer, M. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
An Evaluation of the Use of Shore-Based Surveys for Estimating Spatial Overlap between Deep-Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines Waggitt, J., Bell, P., Scott, B. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds
Modeling of In-Stream Tidal Energy Development and its Potential Effects in Tacoma Narrows Washington USA Yang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Laboratory study on the effects of hydro kinetic turbines on hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit behaviour Sparling, C., Lonergan, M., McConnell, B. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater operational noise level emitted by a tidal current turbine and its potential impact on marine fauna Lossent, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Multi-Dimensional Optimisation of Tidal Energy Converters Array Layouts Considering Geometric, Economic and Environmental Constraints González-Gorbeña, E., Qassim, R., Rosman, P. February 2018 Journal Article Tidal
Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves Sellar, B., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Operational Noise from Tidal Turbine Arrays and the Assessment of Collision Risk with Marine Mammals Marmo, B. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Noise Marine Mammals
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
A Tool for Simulating Collision Probabilities of Animals with Marine Renewable Energy Devices Schmitt, P., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Recreation & Tourism
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Measuring Underwater Background Noise in High Tidal Flow Environments Willis, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Tidal Noise
Adjusting the Financial Risk of Tidal Current Projects by Optimising the 'Installed Capacity/Capacity Factor'-Ratio Already During the Feasibility Stage Bucher, R., Couch, S. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Harbour Seals Avoid Tidal Turbine Noise: Implications for Collision Risk Hastie, G., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Multi-Scale Ocean Response to a Large Tidal Stream Turbine Array De Dominicis, M., Murray, R., Wolf, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Installations on Tidal Stream Generation in Cobscook Bay O'Donncha, F., James, S., Ragnoli, E. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Simulating Current-Energy Converters: SNL-EFDC Model Development, Verification, and Parameter Estimation James, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Local scour around a model hydrokinetic turbine in an erodible channel Hill, C., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels Musa, M., Heisel, M., Guala, M. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Comparative Effects of Climate Change and Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Shelf Sea De Demonicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Fish
Impact of different tidal renewable energy projects on the hydrodynamic processes in the Severn Estuary, UK Xia, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Deployment characterization of a floatable tidal energy converter on a tidal channel, Ria Formosa, Portugal Pacheco, A., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Fine-Scale Hydrodynamic Metrics Underlying Predator Occupancy Patterns in Tidal Stream Environments Lieber, L., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Using Coupled Hydrodynamic Biogeochemical Models to Predict the Effects of Tidal Turbine Arrays on Phytoplankton Dynamics Schuchert, P., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes
Research for the Sustainable Development of Tidal Power in Maine Johnson, T., Zydlewski, G. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Development and the Environmental Impact Analysis of Tidal Current Energy Turbines in China Liu, Y., Ma, C., Jiang, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
From Scotland to New Scotland: Constructing a Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy for Nova Scotia Sangiuliano, S., Mastrantonis, S. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Legal and Policy
Modelling the Hydrodynamic and Morphological Impacts of a Tidal Stream Development in Ramsey Sound Haverson, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
First in situ Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Marine Mammals during Operation of a Tidal Turbine in Ramsey Sound, Wales Malinka, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Fish Distributions in a Tidal Channel Indicate the Behavioural Impact of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation Fraser, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Fish
Evaluating Statistical Models to Measure Environmental Change: A Tidal Turbine Case Study Linder, H., Horne, J. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine O'Carroll, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Invertebrates
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tidal Power and the Aquatic Environment of La Rance Retiere, C. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Birds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding and Informing Permitting Decisions for Tidal Energy Development Using an Adaptive Management Framework Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Wave and Tidal Energy Its Emergence and the Challenges it Faces Ferro, B. May 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
Modelling Seabed Shear Stress, Sediment Mobility, and Sediment Transport in the Bay of Fundy Li, M., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Application of Tidal Energy for Purification in Fresh Water Lake Jung, R., Isshiki, H. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Habitat characterization of a tidal energy site using an ROV: Overcoming difficulties in a harsh environment Greene, H. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour Hammar, L., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
A Holistic Method for Selecting Tidal Stream Energy Hotspots Under Technical, Economic and Functional Constraints Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Using a Spatial Overlap Approach to Estimate the Risk of Collisions between Deep Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines: A Review of Potential Methods and Approaches Waggitt, J., Scott, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds
Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Fish Presence in a High-Velocity Tidal Channel Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Turning of the tides: Assessing the international implementation of tidal current turbines Sangiuliano, S. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
The Ebb and Flow of Tidal Barrage Development in Zhejiang Province, China Li, Y., Pan, D. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
A Review of the Current Understanding of the Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Energy Removal by Tidal Turbines Nash, S., Phoenix, A. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds Waggitt, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York Bevelhimer, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Challenges and Opportunities in Monitoring the Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices on Marine Vertebrates Fox, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Hydrodynamic Impacts of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation on the Benthic Boundary Layer in a Tidal Channel Fraser, S., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Regional-Scale Patterns in Harbour Porpoise Occupancy of Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Ten Years of Experience at the La Rance Tidal Power Plant Andre, H. December 1978 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Efficiency Of A Turbine In A Tidal Channel Garrett, C., Cummins, P. September 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Environmental Interactions of Tidal and Wave Energy Generation Devices Frid, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Extractable Power From A Channel Linking A Bay To The Open Ocean Blanchfield, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Confronting the Financing Impasse: Risk Management through Internationally Staged Investments in Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
The Value of Delay in Tidal Energy Development MacDonald, S. December 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
The Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Large-Scale Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Understanding the Potential Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with Tidal Turbines Copping, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
The Power Potential Of Tidal Currents In Channels Garrett, C., Cummins, P. April 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Modelling the Far Field Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Tidal Farms - A Focus on Tidal Regime, Intertidal Zones and Flushing Nash, S., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment

Pages

Subscribe to Tidal
Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Tidal