Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 686
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort ascending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Simulating the environmental impact of tidal turbines on the seabed Vybulkova, L., Vezza, M., Brown, R. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Stereo-Video Methodology for Quantitative Analysis of Fish-Turbine Interactions Hammar, L., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Winter and summer differences in probability of fish encounter (spatial overlap) with MHK devices Viehman, H., Boucher, T., Redden, A. August 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Short Term Temporal Behavioural Responses in Pollack, Pollachius pollachius to Marine Tidal Turbine Devices; a Combined Video and ADCP Doppler Approach Broadhurst, M., Barr, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Characteristics of Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Development of a Stereo Camera System for Monitoring Hydrokinetic Turbines Joslin, J., Polagye, B., Parker-Stetter, S. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Nearfield Habitat
Effects of a Tidal Lagoon on the Hydrodynamics of Swansea Bay, Wales, UK Horrillo-Caraballo, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
US Department of Energy (DOE) National Lab Activities in Marine Hydrokinetics: Scaled Model Testing of DOE Reference Turbines Neary, V., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Numerical Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Farms on Tidal Stream Energy Generation O'Donncha, F., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Sand Bank Dynamics Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. May 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Quantifying Turbulence for Tidal Power Applications Thompson, J., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Potential Effects of the Interaction Between Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines - An Engineering and Biomechanical Analysis Carlson, T., Jepsen, R., Copping, A. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling and Validation of a Cross Flow Turbine using Free Vortex Models and an improved 2D Lift Model Urbina, R., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Array Operation on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Couch, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Underwater sound on wave & tidal test sites: improving knowledge of acoustic impact of Marine Energy Convertors Giry, C., Bald, J., Uriarte, A. June 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
A Comparison of Underwater Noise at Two High Energy Sites Willis, M., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Method for Identification of Doppler Noise Levels in Turbulent Flow Measurements Dedicated to Tidal Energy Richard, J., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Who Should be Afraid of a Tidal Turbine - The Good the Bad or the Ugly? Hammar, L., Ehnberg, J. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
The Impact of Energy Extraction on Tidal Flow Development Couch, S., Bryden, I. July 2004 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Comparing environmental effects of Rance and Severn barrages Kirby, R., Retière. C. March 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Long-Term Multibeam Measurements Around a Tidal Turbine Test Site in Orkney, Scotland Blondel, P., Williamson, B. August 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Numerical Models as Enabling Tools for Tidal-Stream Energy Extraction and Environmental Impact Assessment Yang, Z., Wang, T. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
A French Application Case of Tidal Turbine Certification Paboeuf, S., Macadre, L., Sun, P. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Influence of Tidal Energy Converters on sediment dynamics in tidal channel Auguste, C., et al. September 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Physical Environment
Measuring waves and currents at the European marine energy centre tidal energy test site: Campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation Sellar, B., et al. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Wave & Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Ornithological Impacts Kirby, A., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds
Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Plan: Shetland Tidal Array, Bluemull Sound McPherson, G. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Severn Tidal Power Feasibility Study: Conclusions and Summary Report Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC) October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Studies of Marine Mammals in Welsh High Tidal Waters Gordon, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave & Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Impacts on Fish and Shellfish Ecology Freeman, S., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish, Invertebrates
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Fisheries, Recreation & Tourism, Stakeholder Engagement
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Monitoring getijdenturbines Oosterscheldekering Jaarrapportage 2018 Leopold, M., Scholl, M. March 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
An Offshore Renewable Energy Environmental Research & Innovation Strategy for the UK Natural Environment Research Council December 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Tidal Turbine Collision Detection: A review of the state-of-the-art sensors and imaging systems for detecting mammal collisions Jha, S. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Marine Mammal Behavioral Response to Tidal Turbine Sound Robertson, F., et al. June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Environmental Effects Monitoring Program Annual Report 2017 FORCE January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Noise Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
TidGen Power System Commercialization Project Final Technical Report ORPC Maine December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Black Rock Tidal Power Grand Passage MRE Permit Black Rock Tidal Power January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Determining the Water Column Usage by Seals in the Brims Lease Site Evers, C., et al. November 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Nova Bluemull Sound - Appropriate Assessment Marine Scotland January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
Environmental Appraisal (EA) for the Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Nautricity December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF
Use of Static Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) for monitoring cetaceans at Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs) for Marine Scotland Embling, C., et al. October 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, C. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem Processes
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
South Korea's Plans for Tidal Power: When a "Green" Solution Creates More Problems Ko, Y., Schubert, D. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Environmental Impact Assessment
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Lessons Learnt from MeyGen Phase 1a: Design Phase MeyGen May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement MarineSpace September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Project Environmental Monitoring Programme Rollings, E., Donovan, C., Eastham, C. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Recreation & Tourism
Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) Environmental Assessment Addendum to the Report: Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project, Volumes 1 and 2 AECOM July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Implications of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sedimentary Processes within Shallow Intertidal Environments van Proosdij, D., et al. March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Effects of Marine Energy Extraction on Non-Cohesive Sediment Transport and Morphological Change in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Fairley, I., Karunarathna, H., Chatzirodou, A. January 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds

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