Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1389
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Ludewig, E. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On the Potential Impact of Lake Erie Wind Farms on Water Temperatures and Mixed‐Layer Depths: Some Preliminary 1‐D Modeling Using COHERENS Afsharian, S., Taylor, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On the Prediction of Pile Driving Induced Underwater Sound Pressure Levels Over Long Ranges Lippert, T., et al. July 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Onset of Barotrauma Injuries Related to Number of Pile Driving Strike Exposures in Hybrid Striped Bass Casper, B., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction Lynn, P. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Open Ocean Aquaculture and Offshore Wind Farms. A feasibility study on the multifunctional use of offshore wind farms and offshore mariculture in the North Sea area Buck, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Fishing
Operational offshore wind farms and associated ship traffic cause profound changes in distribution patterns of Loons (Gavia spp.) Mendel, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Birds
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-Economics
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Ornithology Technical Report for the proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm projects Burton, N., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
Over the Sea and Far Away? A Consideration of the Planning, Politics and Public Perception of Offshore Wind Farms Haggett, C. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Overview of ocean power technology Wilberforce, T., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Parameterization of wind turbine impacts on hydrodynamics and sediment transport Rivier, A., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Particle Motion Measured at an Operational Wind Turbine in Relation to Hearing Sensitivity in Fish Sigray, P., Andersson, M. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-Economics
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Fish
Perceived Concerns and Possible Management Strategies for Governing 'Wind-Farm Mariculture Integration' Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Socio-Economics
Perception of Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals by a Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Presence of Simulated Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Lucke, K., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Perceptions of Commercial and Recreational Fishers on the Potential Ecological Impacts of the Block Island Wind Farm (US) ten Brink, T., Dalton, T. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Fishing
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Socio-Economics, Fishing
Performance and Integrity of Protective Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Structures after Three Years Under Offshore Site Conditions Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Physical and Numerical Large-Scale Wave Basin Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction and Wave Impact Phenomena Yim, S., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Pile Driving Zone of Responsiveness Extends Beyond 20 km for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)) Tougaard, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Place attachment and marine recreationists' attitudes toward offshore wind energy development Brownlee, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Recreation
Placing Green Energy in the Sea: Offshore Wind Farms, Dolphins, Oysters, and the Territorial Politics of the Intertidal Zone in Taiwan Hung, P. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
PLOCAN Marine Test Site for Ocean Energy Converters April 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Populationsdynamik von kommerziell genutzten Fischarten in (durch Offshore- Windkraftanlagen) veränderter Ökosystemstruktur Diembeck, D. January 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Porpoises and Offshore Windfarms - Conflict, Co-Existence or Refuge Scheidat, M. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Positive energies? An empirical study of community energy participation and attitudes to renewable energy Bauwens, T., Devine-Wright, P. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds: A Pilot Study in Northern Gannets in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., Markones, N., Corman, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Potential effects of electrical energy transmission - the case study from the Polish Marine Areas (southern Baltic Sea) Otremba, Z., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Fish Thomsen, F., et al. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates
Potential Impacts from a Worst Case Discharge from an United States Offshore Wind Farm Gunter, T. January 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Potential Use of Population Viability Analysis to Assess the Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Bird Populations Maclean, I., Frederiksen, M., Rehfisch, M. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Power Connections for Offshore Wind Farms Schachner, J. January 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Power from the Brave New Ocean: Marine Renewable Energy and Ecological Risks Hammar, L. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Fish, Socio-Economics
Practical Approaches and Advances in Spatial Tools to Achieve Multi-Objective Marine Spatial Planning Lombard, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Practical Management of Cumulative Anthropogenic Impacts with Working Marine Examples Wright, A., Kyhn, L. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Ecosystem
Precipitation reduction during Hurricane Harvey with simulated offshore wind farms Pan, Y., Yan, C., Archer, C. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model Goyert, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Predicting Underwater Radiated Noise Levels due to the First Offshore Wind Turbine Installation in the U.S. Kim, H., Miller, J., Potty, G. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-Economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-Economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Private Incentives for the Emergence of Co-Production of Offshore Wind Energy and Mussel Aquaculture Griffin, R., Buck, B., Krause, G. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Socio-Economics
Problems and Benefits Associated with the Development of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-Economics
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XI Schwartz, S. May 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Pseudo Spectral Analysis of the Energy Entrainment in a Scaled Down Wind Farm Newman, J., Drew, D., Castillo, L. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Public Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms in the Netherlands: Testing and Adjusting the Public Acceptance Models for a Better Wind of Change Dion, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public acceptance of offshore wind power: does perceived fairness of process matter? Firestone, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Public estimates of support for offshore wind energy: False consensus, pluralistic ignorance, and partisan effects Sokoloski, R., Markowitz, E., Bidwell, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise

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