Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1393
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Behavioral Reactions of Harbor Porpoise to Pile-Driving Noise Tougaard, J., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Marine Renewables Industry in Relation to Marine Mammals: Synthesis of Work Undertaken by the ICES Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) Murphy, S., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines
Long Range Propagation Modeling of Offshore Wind Turbine Noise using Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Models Kim, H., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Seabirds
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Effects of Pile Driving on the Behavior of Cod and Sole Thomsen, F., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF
What is the Source Level of Pile-Driving Noise in Water? Ainslie, M., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Shortlist Masterplan Wind Aerial Surveys of Harbour Porpoises on the Dutch Continental Shelf Geelhoed, S., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Wind Farms and Seabirds: Updated National Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction Lynn, P. December 2011 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Lighting, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee - Final Report on Fluxes, Flight Altitudes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Multi-Criteria Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures Lozano-Minguez, E., Kolios, A., Brennan, F. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Report on a Red-throated Diver Agent-Based Model to Assess the Cumulative Impact from Offshore Wind Farms Topping, C., Petersen, I. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Scoping Study for Offshore Wind Farm Development in Scottish Waters Davies, I., Watret, R. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Gordon, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms Measuring Instruction for Underwater Sound Monitoring Müller, A., Zerbs, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Nearfield Habitat
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Underwater Mach Wave Radiation from Impact Pile Driving: Theory and Observation Reinhall, P., Dahl, P. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part II: Procedures for Measuring Underwater Noise in Connection with Offshore Wind Farm Licensing de Jong, C., Ainslie, M., Blacquière, G. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Modelling Harbour Porpoise Seasonal Density as a Function of the German Bight Environment: Implications for Management Gilles, A., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
The Multi-Use In Wind Farm Projects: More Conflicts Or A Win-Win Opportunity? Lacroix, D., Sylvain, P. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Particle Motion Measured at an Operational Wind Turbine in Relation to Hearing Sensitivity in Fish Sigray, P., Andersson, M. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Night Migration of Songbirds and Waterfowl at the Utgrunden Off-Shore Wind Farm: A Radar-Assisted Study in Southern Kalmar Sound Pettersson, J., Fågelvind, J. July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Shortlist Masterplan Wind - Effect of Piling Noise on Survival of Fish Larvae (pilot study) Bolle, L., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dutch North Sea Scheidat, M., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Modelling Seabird Collision Risk with Off-Shore Wind Farms Mateos, M., Arroyo, G., Rosario, J. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Life Cycle Assessment of the Offshore Wind Farm Alpha Ventus Wagner, H., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Compendium of Avian Occurrence Information for the Continental Shelf Waters along the Atlantic Coast of the United States: Final Report (Database Selection - Shorebirds) O'Connell, A., Spiegel, C., Johnson, S. April 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Benefits and Disadvantages of Co-Locating Windfarms and Marine Conservation Zones, with a Focus on Commercial Fishing Blyth-Skyrme, R. March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Legal & Policy
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales Welsh Assembly Government February 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Environmental Effects Evaluation Tool Andrea Copping February 2011 Blog Article Offshore Wind
The UK Offshore Wind Power Programme: A Sea-Change in UK Energy Policy? Toke, D. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Why Offshore Wind Energy? Esteban, M., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding Public Responses to Offshore Wind Power Haggett, C. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm in the Danish North Sea Brandt, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Fencing in the bay? Place attachment, social representations of energy technologies and the protection of restorative environments Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Leonhard, S., Stenberg, C., Støttrup, J. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Selected findings from the baseline and targeted monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Local Birds in and around the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Leopold, M., Dijkman, E., Teal, L. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Physical Environment
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MUSSEL CULTIVATION AS A CO-USE IN OFFSHORE WIND FARMS: POTENTIAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY Buck, B., Ebeling, M., Michler-Cieluch, T. December 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions

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