Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Fish And Sessile Assemblages Associated With Wind-turbine Constructions In The Baltic Sea Andersson, M., Öhman, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
California Offshore Wind Energy Potential Dvorak, M., Archer, C., Jacobson, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Adapting Offshore Wind Power Foundations to Local Environment Hammar, L., Andersson, S., Rosenberg, R. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Near-Shore Wind Power - Protected Seascapes, Environmentalists' Attitudes, and the Technocratic Planning Perspective Wolsink, M. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast Gee, K. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Risk Formulation For The Sonic Effects Of Offshore Wind Farms On Fish In The EU Region Kikuchi, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Mitigation of Underwater Pile Driving Noise During Offshore Construction: Final Report Stokes, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Comparison of Visual and Digital Aerial Survey Results of Avian Abundance for Round 3, Norfolk Region Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. November 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Real-Time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxia Zone Mullins, R., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Stakeholder Perceptions of the Wave Hub Development in Cornwall, UK. West, J., Bailey, I., Whithead, I. September 2009 Conference Paper Offshore Wind Stakeholder Engagement
Integrated Assessment of Coastal and Marine Changes Using the Example of Offshore Wind Farms: the Coastal Futures Approach Kannen, A., Burkhard, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Coastal Process Modelling for Offshore Windfarm Environmental Impact Assessment: Best Practice Guide Lambkin, D., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Ecosystem Based Modeling and Indication of Ecological Integrity in the German North Sea - Case Study Offshore Wind Parks Burkhard, B., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Local Effects of Blue Mussels Around Turbine Foundations in an Ecosystem Model of Nysted Off-Shore Wind Farm, Denmark Maar, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Wind Electricity Generation in Scandinavia Tveten, A. July 2009 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
High Resolution Video Survey of Seabirds and Mammals in the Rhyl Flats Area Hexter, R. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Investigations into the effects of pile driving at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev II and the FINO III research platform Brandt, M., Diederichs, A., Nehls, G. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation
Ecological and Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Marine Aquaculture within Offshore Wind Farms: Social Aspects of Multiple-Use Planning Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G., Buck, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Developing Guidance on Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment for Offshore Wind Farm Developers King, S., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Wind‐Farm and Other Bird Casualties from Carcasses Found on a Northumbrian Beach Over an 11‐Year Period Newton, I., Little, B. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Aerial Surveys Of Round 3, Zone 5 For Waterbirds - Final Report WWT Consulting May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Seasonal Distribution Of Harbour Porpoises And Possible Interference Of Offshore Wind Farms In The German North Sea Gilles, A., Scheidat, M., Siebert, U. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Marine Spatial Planning: A Step-by-Step Approach toward Ecosystem-based Management Ehler, C., Douvere, F. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Review Of Assessment Methodologies For Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Where Are All the People? A Study on the Integration of Socioeconomics and Marine Conservation Planning Feldman, L. May 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Pile Driving Zone of Responsiveness Extends Beyond 20 km for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)) Tougaard, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Observations of Seabirds at Offshore Wind Turbines near Blyth in Northeast England Rothery, P., Newton, I., Little, B. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Life cycle assessment of a floating offshore wind turbine Weinzettel, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Determining Night-Time Distribution of Long-Tailed Ducks Using Satellite Telemetry Allison, T., Perkins, S., Perry, M. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Involving the Public in the Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Portman, M. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation

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