Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1172
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Benefits and Disadvantages of Co-Locating Windfarms and Marine Conservation Zones, with a Focus on Commercial Fishing Blyth-Skyrme, R. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Legal and Policy
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
SORIANT VUM - final report von Benda-Beckmann, A., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of pile-driving sound on the survival of fish larvae Bolle, L., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing frequencies of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) temporarily affected by played back offshore pile driving sounds Kastelein, R., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for narrow-band sweeps (0.125-150 kHz) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Local Birds to the Offshore Wind Farms PAWP and OWEZ off the Dutch mainland coast Leopold, M., van Bemmelen, R., Zuur, A. October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Issuance of Incidental Harassment Authorizations to Deepwater Wind for the Take of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System National Marine Fisheries Service August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume I - Report Narrative Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume II - Appendices Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030 Beiter, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Use of High Resolution Sonar for Near-Turbine Fish Observations (DIDSON) - WeSea 2007-002 Couperus, B., et al. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Impact of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Sub-sea Cables on Marine Organisms - The Current State of Knowledge Olsson, T., et al. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Navitus Bay Wind Park Technical Appendix 2.1 - EMF Calculations Report Dorey, P. April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Navitus Bay Wind Park Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Navitus Bay Development April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Deep Water: The Next Step for Offshore Wind Energy Arapogianni, A., et al. July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Framework for Regulating Underwater Noise During Pile Driving Andersson, M., et al. August 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Northeast Offshore Wind Regional Market Characterization: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind Grace, R., et al. October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-Field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Carton, G., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Evaluating Benefits of Offshore Wind Energy Projects in NEPA AECOM July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Feasibility Study for Meta-Analysis of Red-Throated Diver Displacement Dirksen, S., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Red-throated Diver Displacement Ellis, I., Ward, R. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Walney Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm UK Planning Inspectorate July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Teesside A & B Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implication for European Sites Proposed East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project One UK Planning Inspectorate March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project Two The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Navitus Bay Wind Park UK Planning Inspectorate February 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Norfolk Boreas Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Norfolk Vanguard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Report to Inform Scoping Royal Haskoning December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Rampion Offshore Wind Farm - Scoping Report RSK Environment September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm Extension Environmental Scoping Study Royal Haskoning October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Taiwanese white dolphins and offshore wind farms Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Revised Navigational Risk Assessment ESS Group, Inc. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
Tern Observations Near Monomoy Island ESS Group December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Analysis of Effects of Wind Turbine Generator Array for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Subbayya, S. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Simulation of Sediment Transport and Deposition from Cable Burial Operations for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Isaji, T. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Investigation of the Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Long-tailed Duck Report, Winter 2005-2006 ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Fisheries Data Report South of Tuckernuck Area ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2017/2018 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Collision Risk Model for "rufa" Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) Interacting with a Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Facility in Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts Gordon, C., Nations, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Evaluation of Lighting Schemes for Offshore Wind Facilities and Impacts to Local Environments Orr, T., Herz, S., Oakley, D. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting
Determining Night-Time Distribution of Long-Tailed Ducks Using Satellite Telemetry Allison, T., Perkins, S., Perry, M. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States Gilman, P., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Finding out the Fate of Displaced Birds Searle, K., et al. February 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind

Pages

Subscribe to Offshore Wind
Find Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Offshore Wind