Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1259
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Monitoring the Environmental Effects of Construction and Initial Operation of the First Offshore Wind Farm in the US James Miller December 2017 Blog Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Mooring System Considerations for Renewable Energy Standards Cribbs, A., et al. May 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MR1 & MR2 Current State of Knowledge of the Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Generation Devices on Marine Mammals and Research Requirements: Update, September 2014 Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
MR6.1 Review of Methodology and Main Results of the JCP Analysis of Cetacean Densities in the Context of Marine Renewable Development Lonergan, M., Hammond, P. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MR6.2 Definition of 'Range' in the Context of Marine Renewable Energy Development and Marine Mammal Conservation Northridge, S. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Multi-Criteria Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures Lozano-Minguez, E., Kolios, A., Brennan, F. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-Field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Carton, G., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey Michler-Cieluch, T., Kodeih, S. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
MUSSEL CULTIVATION AS A CO-USE IN OFFSHORE WIND FARMS: POTENTIAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY Buck, B., Ebeling, M., Michler-Cieluch, T. December 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States Gilman, P., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Navitus Bay Wind Park Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Navitus Bay Development April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Navitus Bay Wind Park Technical Appendix 2.1 - EMF Calculations Report Dorey, P. April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Near-Shore Wind Power - Protected Seascapes, Environmentalists' Attitudes, and the Technocratic Planning Perspective Wolsink, M. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Need for a wind of change? Use of offshore wind messages by stakeholders and the media in Germany and their effects on public acceptance Schmidt, A. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
NEPA Review of Offshore Wind Farms: Ensuring Emission Reduction Benefits Outweigh Visual Impacts Bisbee, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
New Achievements in Underwater Noise Modelling for Offshore Pile Driving Trimoreau, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
New Hydro Sound Dampers to Reduce Piling Underwater Noise Elmer, K., Savery, J. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Gordon, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Night Migration of Songbirds and Waterfowl at the Utgrunden Off-Shore Wind Farm: A Radar-Assisted Study in Southern Kalmar Sound Pettersson, J., Fågelvind, J. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Nocturnal flight activity of northern gannets Morus bassanus and implications for modelling collision risk at offshore wind farms Furness, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Nocturnal Flight Patterns and Altitudes of Diving Ducks in the IJsselmeer Area Dirksen, S., et al. December 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Noise Measurements and Analysis: Offshore Pile-Driving Underwater and Above-Water Ødegaard and Danneskiold-Samsøe October 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Noise mitigation during pile-driving efficiently reduces disturbance of marine mammals Nehls, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Noise Mitigation Measures and Low-noise Foundation Concepts - State of the Art Verfuß, T. January 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Noise mitigation systems and low-noise installation technologies Verfuß, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Norfolk Boreas Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Norfolk Vanguard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis occurrence in offshore wind energy areas near Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA Leiter, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Northeast Offshore Wind Regional Market Characterization: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind Grace, R., et al. October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Obligations and Aspirations: A Critical Evaluation of Offshore Wind Farm Cumulative Impact Assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Observations of Seabirds at Offshore Wind Turbines near Blyth in Northeast England Rothery, P., Newton, I., Little, B. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Ocean Beliefs and Support for an Offshore Wind Energy Project Bidwell, D. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ocean Plug Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
OES GIS Map: Offshore Installations Worldwide Ocean Energy Systems (OES) January 2014 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Off-Shore Wind Farm Development: Present Status and Challenges Perveen, R., Kishor, N., Mohanty, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Offshore Energy Structures Karimirad, M. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore Marine Renewable Energy Devices as Stepping Stones Across Biogeographical Boundaries Adams, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Offshore Obstruction Lighting - Issues and Mitigation Blew, J., Nehls, G., Prall, U. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Capital Cost Estimation in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf - A Reference Class Approach Kaiser, M., Snyder, B. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience Rein, C., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore wind energy resource assessment under techno-economic and social-ecological constraints Magar, V., Gross, M., González-García, L. February 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Environmental Effects Evaluation Tool Andrea Copping February 2011 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Offshore wind farm in marine spatial planning and the stakeholders engagement: Opportunities and challenges for Taiwan Zhang, Y., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Farm Site Selection Study around Jeju Island, South Korea Kim, T., Park, J., Maeng, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms and their Impact on Fish Abundance and Community Structure Stenberg, C., et al. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Offshore Wind Farms as Productive Sites or Ecological Traps for Gadoid Fishes? - Impact on Growth, Condition Index and Diet Composition Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Offshore Wind Farms Development in Relation to Environmental Protected Areas Spiropoulou, I., Karamanis, D., Kehayias, G. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwestern Baltic Sea: A Model Study of Regional Impacts on Oxygen Conditions Janßen, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms Measuring Instruction for Underwater Sound Monitoring Müller, A., Zerbs, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Wind Farms, New Players in Marine Ecosystems Lindeboom, H. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast Gee, K. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Power Reef Effects and Reef Fauna Roles Krone, R. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Submarine Cable Spacing Guidance TÜV SÜD PMSS, Red Penguin Associates December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind

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