Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1393
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort ascending Receptor
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Ornithology Technical Report for the proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm projects Burton, N., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Main Characteristics, Problems, and Prospects for Western European Coastal Seas Dauvin, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Similar Diversity-Disturbance Responses to Different Physical Impacts: Three Cases of Small-Scale Biodiversity Increase in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2013 Corbetta, G., Pineda, I., Moccia, J. January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms: Modeling Approach, Experimental Setup, and Results Fricke, M., Rolfes, R. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Human Dimensions
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Power Production in the North Sea Draget, E. January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Legal Framework for Offshore Wind Farms: A Critical Analysis of the Consents Process Gibson, E., Howsamn, P. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Private Incentives for the Emergence of Co-Production of Offshore Wind Energy and Mussel Aquaculture Griffin, R., Buck, B., Krause, G. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Co-Location of Offshore Windfarms and Decapod Fisheries in the UK: Constraints and Opportunities Hooper, T., Austen, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Secondary Hard Substrate on the Distribution and Abundance of Aurelia aurita in the Western Baltic Sea Janßen, H., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem Processes
Behavioral Responses of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to Playbacks of Broadband Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee: Progress Report on Fluxes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. March 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Fluxes, Flight Paths and Altitudes of Flying Birds 2003-2004 Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Foraging Ranges of Northern Gannets in Relation to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the UK: 2010-2012 Langston, R., Teuten, E., Butler, A. December 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
On a Hybrid Model for the Prediction of Pile Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farms Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Development: Macrobenthic Ecology Study - 2007 Emu June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Marine Renewable Energy Development: Assessing the Benthic Footprint at Multiple Scales Miller, R., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
The State of Rhode Island's Pioneering Marine Spatial Plan Olsen, S., McCann, J., Fugate, G. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm: Diver Surveys 2009-10 Percival, S. November 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Involving the Public in the Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Portman, M. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cumulative Impacts Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms Renewable UK June 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Eco-Hydro-Acoustic Modeling and its Use as an EIA Tool Rossington, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Impact Hypothesis for Offshore Wind Farms: Explanatory Models for Species Distribution at Extremely Exposed Rocky Areas Schläppy, M., Saskov, A., Dahlgren, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Resolving Fine-Scale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Skov, H., Thomsen, F. December 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
The Current State of Offshore Wind Energy Technology Development Sun, X., Huang, D., Wu, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Final Report on Aerial Monitoring of Seals near Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The UK Offshore Wind Power Programme: A Sea-Change in UK Energy Policy? Toke, D. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Report on a Red-throated Diver Agent-Based Model to Assess the Cumulative Impact from Offshore Wind Farms Topping, C., Petersen, I. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Final Report on the Effect of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Lessons from Stakeholder Dialogues on Marine Aquaculture in Offshore Wind Farms: Perceived Potentials, Constraints and Research Gaps Wever, L., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Spatially Explicit Model of Wintering Common Loons: Conservation Implications Winiarski, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Strengthening the Role of Science in Marine Governance through Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Wright, G. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The Key Technologies and Development of Offshore Wind Farm in China Wu, J., Wang, Z., Wang, G. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Real-Time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxia Zone Mullins, R., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Staying Afloat in Deepwaters Sunderasan, S. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Noise Mitigation Measures and Low-noise Foundation Concepts - State of the Art Verfuß, T. January 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Special Issue: Renewable Ocean Energy Development and the Environment Zydlewski, G., Copping, A., Redden, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Dark Green Electricity Comes from the Sea: Capitalizing on Ecological Merits of Offshore Wind Power? Toonen, H., Lindeboom, H. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2014 Corbetta, G., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
TROPOS Project Final Report Brito, J. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental aspects of designing multi-purpose offshore platforms in the scope of the FP7 TROPOS Project Lu, S., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Submarine Cable Spacing Guidance TÜV SÜD PMSS, Red Penguin Associates December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions

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