Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1388
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Seeing clearly in a virtual reality: Tourist reactions to an offshore wind project Teisl, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Recreation
Ocean sprawl facilitates dispersal and connectivity of protected species Henry, L., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Smythe, T., McCann, J. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-location opportunities for renewable energies and aquaculture facilities in the Canary Archipelago Weiss, C., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Sustainable use of marine resources through offshore wind and mussel farm co-location Di Tullio, G., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time Graham, I., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Life cycle cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy under the climatic conditions in Southeast Asia – Setting the bottom-line for deployment Nian, V., Liu, Y., Zhong, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Damage analysis of ship collisions with offshore wind turbine foundations Moulas, D., Shafiee, M., Mehmanparast, A. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Navigation
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
U.S. National Debate Topic 2014-2015: The Ocean H.W. Wilson Company January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Offshore Energy Structures Karimirad, M. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Ludewig, E. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management Ölçer, A., et al. January 2018 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines Letcher, T. May 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction Lynn, P. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts, and Sustainable Management Salomon, M., Markus, T. January 2018 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Wind and Energy Wildlife Impacts Bispo, R., et al. March 2019 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
A Baseline Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Offshore Windfarm Cables Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Human Dimensions
Assessment of the Potential for Acoustic Deterrents to Mitigate the Impact on Marine Mammals of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Gordon, J., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Base-Line Investigations of Birds in Relation to an Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand: Results and Conclusions, 2002 Desholm, M., et al. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms - A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms Gerdes, G., Tiedemann, A., Zeelenberg, S. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Changes in Bird Habitat Utilisation around the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm, with Particular Emphasis on Common Scoter Petersen, I., Fox, A. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Coastal Process Modelling for Offshore Windfarm Environmental Impact Assessment: Best Practice Guide Lambkin, D., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development Jonkman, J., et al. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Delivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit Hassan, G., Capener, P. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation
Guidelines for Data Acquisition to Support Marine Environmental Assessments of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Judd, A. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm EIA Report: Benthic Communities Leonhard, S. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment

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