Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Deep Water: The Next Step for Offshore Wind Energy Arapogianni, A., et al. July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Choi, E., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Predicting Underwater Radiated Noise Levels due to the First Offshore Wind Turbine Installation in the U.S. Kim, H., Miller, J., Potty, G. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Jonathan Whiting June 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Modelling the Spatial Concentrations of Bird Migration to Assess Conflicts with Wind Turbines Liechti, F., Guélat, J., Komenda-Zehnder, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Cumulative Impacts Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms Renewable UK June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Trade-offs between seascape and offshore wind farming values: An analysis of local opinions based on a cognitive belief framework Gee, K. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
An Analysis of Offshore Wind Development: A Non-market, Stated Preference Approach to Measure Community Perceptions and Opinions and Estimate Willingness to Pay in Two Lake Michigan Regions Knapp, L., et al. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
How the Belgian Wind Farm Business Made us Discover the Challenging Environment of Marine Sand Dunes Bolle, A., Mathys, M., Haerens, P. April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Ecosystems: A Review Taking an Ecosystem Services Perspective Mangi, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Epifauna Dynamics at an Offshore Foundation - Implications of Future Wind Power Farming in the North Sea Krone, R., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Turbine Visibility and Visual Impact Threshold Distances Sullivan, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Modeling Carcass Removal Time for Avian Mortality Assessment in Wind Farms Using Survival Analysis Bispo, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Volume 2 - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Livesey, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Ornithology Technical Report for the proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm projects Burton, N., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Seal Scarers as a Tool to Deter Harbour Porpoises from Offshore Construction Sites Brandt, M., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Effects of Offshore Windfarms on Marine Wildlife - A Synthesis for Swedish Waters Bergström, L., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Obstruction Lighting - Issues and Mitigation Blew, J., Nehls, G., Prall, U. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Development of Noise Mitigation Measures in Offshore Wind Farm Construction Koschinski, S., Lüdemann, K. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving on a Temporal and Spatial Scale Braasch, A., Joost, M., Ketzer, C. February 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Cautious but Committed - Towards a More Adaptive Environmental Planning Approach for Wind Energy? Köppel, J. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Book of Abstracts: Conference on Wind Power and Environmental Impacts Naturvårdsverket February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Seven Offshore Wind Pilot Projects Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Luke Hanna January 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Underwater Noise Generated from Marine Piling Robinson, S., Theobald, P., Lepper, P. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Learning from the Past to Optimise Future Monitoring Programmes Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Harbour Porpoises in the Southern North Sea - Analysis of Potential Influences of Alpha Ventus in the Context of General Distribution Trends Gilles, A., et al. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Effects of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations on Mobile Demersal Megafauna and Pelagic Fish - Research at the Alpha Ventus Offshore Wind Farm Krone, R., Krägefsky, S. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Do migrating birds avoid offshore wind turbines? A method to investigate and analyze reactions of diurnally migrating birds to offshore wind farms Aumuller, R., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Sound Solutions: Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Without Underwater Noise Stichting de Noordzee January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
Modeling of Underwater Noise from Pile Driving using Coupled Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Model with Improved Parabolic Equation Starting Field Park, J., Seong, W., Lee, K. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Consequences of a Cumulative Perspective on Marine Environmental Impacts: Offshore Wind Farming and Seabirds at North Sea Scale in Context of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Busch, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
Validation of Finite Element Computations for the Quantitative Prediction of Underwater Noise from Impact Pile Driving Zampolli, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Is a German Harbour Porpoise Much More Sensitive than a British One? Comparative Analyses of Mandatory Measures for the Protection of Harbour Porposes (Phocoena phocoena) During Offshore Wind Farm Ramming in Germany, Denmark and the UK Luedeke, J. December 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Modelling of Pile Driving Noise by Means of Wavenumber Integration Lippert, T., Lippert, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The economics of visual disamenity reductions of offshore wind farms—Review and suggestions from an emerging field Ladenburg, J., Lutzeyer, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
D2.4 Collation of Off‐shore Wind‐Wave Dynamics Bredmose, H., et al. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
A Case Study on the Effects of Underwater Noise During the Construction of Large Offshore Wind Farms Mason, T., Barham, R., Nedwell, J. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Analysis of the Argyll Array Turbine Layout Iterations in Relation to Ornithological Constraints Bullman, R., Shaylon, S. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Mitigation of Low-Frequency Underwater Anthropogenic Noise using Stationary Encapsulated Gas Bubbles Lee, K., Wochner, M., Wilson, P. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Identifying ecologically important marine areas for seabirds using behavioural information in combination with distribution patterns Camphuysen, K., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects on Harbour Porpoises from Rødsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Tracking seabirds to identify ecologically important and high risk marine areas in the western North Atlantic Montevecchi, W., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore Wind Farms, New Players in Marine Ecosystems Lindeboom, H. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem

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