Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1388
Titlesort ascending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Scroby Sands Seal Monitoring: Analysis of the 2005 Post-Construction Aerial Surveys Skeate, E., Perrow, M. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Scotland's National Marine Plan - A Single Framework for Managing Our Seas Marine Scotland March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Scoping Study for Offshore Wind Farm Development in Scottish Waters Davies, I., Watret, R. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Risk Formulation For The Sonic Effects Of Offshore Wind Farms On Fish In The EU Region Kikuchi, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Farfield Environment
Risk Assessment for Marine Vessel Traffic and Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Navigation
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Revised Navigational Risk Assessment ESS Group, Inc. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Navigation
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Human Dimensions
Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals Verfuss, U., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Review of Literature and Studies on Electro Magnetic Fields (EMF) Generated by Undersea Power Cables and Associated Influence on Marine Organisms Switzer, T., Meggitt, D. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Review of Environmental Data Associated with Post-Consent Monitoring of Licence Conditions of Offshore Wind Farms Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Responses of Two Marine Top Predators to an Offshore Wind Farm Mclean, N., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Responses of Local Birds to the Offshore Wind Farms PAWP and OWEZ off the Dutch mainland coast Leopold, M., van Bemmelen, R., Zuur, A. October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving on a Temporal and Spatial Scale Braasch, A., Joost, M., Ketzer, C. February 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm in the Danish North Sea Brandt, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds Hawkins, A., Roberts, L., Cheesman, S. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction Graham, I., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Resource selection and wintering phenology of White-winged Scoters in southern New England: Implications for offshore wind energy development Meattey, D., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Resolving Fine-Scale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Skov, H., Thomsen, F. December 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Residency, Site Fidelity and Habitat Use of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) at an Offshore Wind Farm Using Acoustic Telemetry Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Walney Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Navitus Bay Wind Park UK Planning Inspectorate February 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project Two The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project One UK Planning Inspectorate March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Teesside A & B Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm UK Planning Inspectorate July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implication for European Sites Proposed East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report on a Red-throated Diver Agent-Based Model to Assess the Cumulative Impact from Offshore Wind Farms Topping, C., Petersen, I. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Renewables-to-reefs: Response to Fowler et al. Smyth, K., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Renewables-to-reefs: Participatory multicriteria decision analysis is required to optimize wind farm decommissioning Fowler, A., Macreadie, P., Booth, D. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates, Fish
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Renewable energy from the high seas: Geo-spatial modelling of resource potential and legal implications for developing offshore wind projects beyond the national jurisdiction of coastal States Elsner, P., Suarez, S. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Renewable Energy Developments in an Uncertain World: The Case of Offshore Wind and Birds in the UK Masden, E., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Reflections on Integrating Operations and Maintenance Activities of Offshore Wind Farms and Mariculture Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Recycling offshore wind farms at decommissioning stage Topham, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Recreation
Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound Casper, B., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Reconversion of offshore oil and gas platforms into renewable energy sites production: Assessment of different scenarios Leporini, M., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Life Cycle Assessment
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Recent Developments in Ocean Energy and Offshore Wind: Financial Challenges and Environmental Misconceptions Esteban, M., Gasparatos, A., Doll, C. September 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Real-Time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxia Zone Mullins, R., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Rapid Macrobenthic Recovery after Dredging Activities in an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Rapid increase of benthic structural and functional diversity at the alpha ventus offshore test site Gutow, L., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Rampion Offshore Wind Farm - Scoping Report RSK Environment September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Public estimates of support for offshore wind energy: False consensus, pluralistic ignorance, and partisan effects Sokoloski, R., Markowitz, E., Bidwell, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Human Dimensions, Aesthetics
Public acceptance of offshore wind power: does perceived fairness of process matter? Firestone, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms in the Netherlands: Testing and Adjusting the Public Acceptance Models for a Better Wind of Change Dion, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement

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