Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1294
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Disturbance Effects on the Harbour Porpoise Population in the North Sea (DEPONS): Status report on model development van Beest, F., et al. February 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
Do man-made structures and water depth affect the diel rhythms in click recordings of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)? Brandt, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Do migrating birds avoid offshore wind turbines? A method to investigate and analyze reactions of diurnally migrating birds to offshore wind farms Aumuller, R., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Do Windmill Parks Function as a Refugium? Derweduwen, J., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 15: Commercial Fisheries Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 22: Socio-Economics Beeden, D. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dynamic Measurements of Pile Deflections as a Source of Underwater Sound Emissions during Impact Driving of Offshore Pile Foundations Kuhn, C., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Eco-Hydro-Acoustic Modeling and its Use as an EIA Tool Rossington, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Eco-Maintenance for Complex Systems: Application on System of Renewable Energy Production Tchertchian, N., Millet, D. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Ecological and Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Ecological Risk as a Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. February 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ecosystem Based Modeling and Indication of Ecological Integrity in the German North Sea - Case Study Offshore Wind Parks Burkhard, B., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Organisms Bochert, R., Zettler, M. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of Pile-Driving Playback Sound Level on Fish-Catching Efficiency in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of pile-driving sound on the survival of fish larvae Bolle, L., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing Kastelein, R., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Leonhard, S., Stenberg, C., Støttrup, J. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee - Final Report on Fluxes, Flight Altitudes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee: Progress Report on Fluxes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. March 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Effective Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Karl-Heinz, E. February 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Effects of established offshore wind farms on energy flow of coastal ecosystems: A case study of the Rudong offshore wind farms in China Wang, J., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of larger turbines for the offshore wind farm at Krieger's Flak, Sweden. Assessment of impact on marine mammals Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of noise-mitigated offshore pile driving on harbour porpoise abundance in the German Bight 2014-2016 (Gescha 2) Rose, A., et al. June 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations on Mobile Demersal Megafauna and Pelagic Fish - Research at the Alpha Ventus Offshore Wind Farm Krone, R., Krägefsky, S. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of Offshore Windfarms on Marine Wildlife - A Synthesis for Swedish Waters Bergström, L., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Effects of Pile Driving on the Behavior of Cod and Sole Thomsen, F., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish Iafrate, J., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on distribution patterns, behaviour and flight heights of seabirds Mendel, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on pelagic fish Krägefsky, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Fish
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects on birds of Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ): An overview and integration of insights obtained Hartman, J., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects on Harbour Porpoises from Rødsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Emissions from corrosion protection systems of offshore wind farms: Evaluation of the potential impact on the marine environment Kirchgeorg, T., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Energy Performances and Life Cycle Assessment of an Italian Wind Farm Ardente, F., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Energy Profiling of Demersal Fish: A Case-Study in Wind Farm Artificial Reefs De Troch, M., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Energy Systems and their Impacts on Marine Ecosystem Services Papathanasopoulou, E., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem

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