Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore Wind Energy

 

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1411
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Three-dimensional mapping of the benthic invertebrates biophony with a compact four-hydrophones array Gervaise, C., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction Invertebrates
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Too loud to talk?: Do wind turbine-related sounds affect harbour seal communication? Lucke, K., et al. March 2008 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Tracing regime shifts in the provision of coastal-marine cultural ecosystem services Gee, K., Burkhard, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Tracking seabirds to identify ecologically important and high risk marine areas in the western North Atlantic Montevecchi, W., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Trade-offs between seascape and offshore wind farming values: An analysis of local opinions based on a cognitive belief framework Gee, K. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management Ölçer, A., et al. January 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
TROPOS Project Final Report Brito, J. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
U.S. National Debate Topic 2014-2015: The Ocean H.W. Wilson Company January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Uncertainty analysis of soil-pile interactions of monopile offshore wind turbine support structures Yeter, B., Garbatov, Y., Soares, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Understanding Bird Collisions at Wind Farms: An Updated Review on the Causes and Possible Mitigation Strategies Marques, A., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Understanding Public Responses to Offshore Wind Power Haggett, C. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Offshore Windfarms Collaborative Offshore Wind Research Into The Environment, Huddleston, J. November 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Understanding the Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Well-Being Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Understanding the Potential for Marine Megafauna Entanglement Risk from Marine Renewable Energy Developments Benjamins, S., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Role of Offshore Structures in Managing Potential Watersipora Invasions Page, H., et al. February 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Underwater Acoustic Modeling Report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech December 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater construction and operational noise at alpha ventus Betke, K. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Mach Wave Radiation from Impact Pile Driving: Theory and Observation Reinhall, P., Dahl, P. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater Noise from Construction and Operation of Offshore Wind Farms Tougaard, J., Madsen, P., Wahlberg, M. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Noise Generated from Marine Piling Robinson, S., Theobald, P., Lepper, P. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater noise levels of pile-driving in a New Zealand harbour, and the potential impacts on endangered Hector's dolphins Leunissen, E., Dawson, S. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Upscaling positive effects of scour protection in offshore wind farms Coolen, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
US Department of Energy Announces Funding for Three Pioneering Offshore Wind Projects Alicia Gorton June 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Use of Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Motion Analysis for Studying the Impacts of Underwater Noise upon Free Ranging Fish and Implications for Marine Energy Management Roberts, L., Perez-Dominguez, R., Elliott, M. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Use of High Resolution Sonar for Near-Turbine Fish Observations (DIDSON) - WeSea 2007-002 Couperus, B., et al. November 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Use of Static Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) for monitoring cetaceans at Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs) for Marine Scotland Embling, C., et al. October 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals
Using a Collision Risk Model to Assess Bird Collision Risks for Offshore Wind Farms Band, B. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Validation of Finite Element Computations for the Quantitative Prediction of Underwater Noise from Impact Pile Driving Zampolli, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Valuing Public Preferences for Offshore Wind Power: A Choice Experimental Approach Krueger, A. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Environmental Assessment Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Office of Renewable Energy Programs December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Visual assessment of off-shore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variables Bishop, I., Miller, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Vitamine ENA: A framework for the development of ecosystem-based indicators for decision makers Safi, G., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Wake Effects of Large Offshore Wind Farms Identified from Satellite SAR Christiansen, M., Hasager, C. October 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wave Climate and Coastline Response of the Dutch Coast: Investigating the effect of large-scale offshore wind farm developments in the North Sea Ballas, G. November 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
What is the Source Level of Pile-Driving Noise in Water? Ainslie, M., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Where Are All the People? A Study on the Integration of Socioeconomics and Marine Conservation Planning Feldman, L. May 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Who cares? European attitudes towards marine and coastal environments Potts, T., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus Migration in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Griffin, L., Rees, E., Hughes, B. October 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Why Offshore Wind Energy? Esteban, M., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Will Communities "Open-Up" to Offshore Wind? Lessons Learned from New England Islands in the United States Klain, S., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Will Offshore Energy Face "Fair Winds and Following Seas"?: Understanding the Factors Influencing Offshore Wind Acceptance Teisl, M., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind and Energy Wildlife Impacts Bispo, R., et al. March 2019 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines Letcher, T. May 2017 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Human Dimensions, Navigation
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Farm - Kriegers Flak: Environmental Impact Assessment Sweden Offshore Wind AB January 2007 Report Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: An Updated Analysis of the Effects of Wind Farms on Birds, and Best Practice Guidance on Integrated Planning and Impact Assessment Gove, B., et al. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds

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