Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore Wind Energy

 

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1410
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine spatial planning Ehler, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Methods and utility of ecosystem service trade-off analysis for guiding marine planning of offshore energy Stevens, J., Lester, S., White, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning Greenhill, L. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Tracing regime shifts in the provision of coastal-marine cultural ecosystem services Gee, K., Burkhard, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Marine spatial planning and stakeholder collaboration Brooks, P., Jedele, T. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The future of marine spatial planning Bradshaw, C., Greenhill, L., Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Lighting, Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Human Dimensions, Navigation
Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Offshore Windfarms Severinsen, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Current situation of offshore development in Germany and environmentally sound expansion of offshore wind energy van Leusen, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Conservation features: Sensitive species and habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone Krause, J. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Rapid increase of benthic structural and functional diversity at the alpha ventus offshore test site Gutow, L., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction Invertebrates
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on pelagic fish Krägefsky, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on distribution patterns, behaviour and flight heights of seabirds Mendel, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Marine mammals and windfarms: Effects of alpha ventus on harbour porpoises Dähne, M., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Marine habitat modelling for harbour porpoises in the German Bight Skov, H., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Underwater construction and operational noise at alpha ventus Betke, K. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Noise mitigation systems and low-noise installation technologies Verfuß, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Cumulative impacts of offshore windfarms Damian, H., Merck, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Fencing in the bay? Place attachment, social representations of energy technologies and the protection of restorative environments Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Noise mitigation during pile-driving efficiently reduces disturbance of marine mammals Nehls, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Raptors
The First Large-Scale Offshore Aerial Survey Using a High-Resolution Camera System McGovern, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Birds
Site selection process for floating offshore wind farms in Madeira Islands Díaz, H., Fonseca, R., Soares, C. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals Erbe, C., Dunlop, R., Dolman, S. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Man-Made Sound on Fishes Hawkins, A., Popper, A. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Developments in understanding of red-throated diver responses to offshore wind farms in marine Special Protection Areas Allen, S., et al. January 2020 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
OES GIS Map: Offshore Installations Worldwide Ocean Energy Systems (OES) January 2014 Website Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm RPS Group March 2018 Website Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
How Deep does an Anchor Penetrate the Seafloor? Maushake, C. November 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Modelling Seabird Collision Risk with Off-Shore Wind Farms Mateos, M., Arroyo, G., Rosario, J. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Harbour Porpoises in the Southern North Sea - Analysis of Potential Influences of Alpha Ventus in the Context of General Distribution Trends Gilles, A., et al. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Cautious but Committed - Towards a More Adaptive Environmental Planning Approach for Wind Energy? Köppel, J. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Birds and Offshore Wind: Studying and Assessing Effects Pereksta, D. July 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Effects of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations on Mobile Demersal Megafauna and Pelagic Fish - Research at the Alpha Ventus Offshore Wind Farm Krone, R., Krägefsky, S. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment: Progress and Challenges Polagye, B. January 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Effects of Offshore Windfarms on Marine Wildlife - A Synthesis for Swedish Waters Bergström, L., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Offshore Obstruction Lighting - Issues and Mitigation Blew, J., Nehls, G., Prall, U. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
The Local Fish Community, Indifferent to the Wind Farm? van Hal, R., Griffioen, B. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Harbor Seals & Harbor Porpoises-Pile Driving: Detection, Behavioral Response and TTS Kastelein, R. November 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Offshore Wind Farms, New Players in Marine Ecosystems Lindeboom, H. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Porpoises and Offshore Windfarms - Conflict, Co-Existence or Refuge Scheidat, M. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Cod and Sole Behaviour in an Offshore Wind Farm Winter, E., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Fish
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise Elmer, K., et al. February 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
The Underwater Sound Field from Impact Pile Driving and Its Potential Effects on Marine Life Dahl, P., de Jong, C., Popper, A. April 2015 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Is Offshore Wind Development a Threat to the North Atlantic Right Whale? Luke Hanna August 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Coastal Wave Parks Should Not Interfere with Gray Whale Migrations Andrea Copping April 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Environmental Effects Evaluation Tool Andrea Copping February 2011 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Seven Offshore Wind Pilot Projects Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Luke Hanna January 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Floating Offshore Wind Sound Analysis Jonathan Whiting August 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
The First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Jonathan Whiting June 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind

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