Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1393
Titlesort ascending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Biodiversity Offsets for Offshore Wind Farm Projects: The Current Situation in Europe Vaissière, A., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Best Management Practices for North Atlantic Right Whales During Offshore Wind Energy Construction and Operations Along the U.S. East Coast NRDC March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Benthos distribution modelling and its relevance for marine ecosystem management Reiss, H., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Benthic production and energy export from man-made structures to softbottoms: does it matter? Dannheim, J., et al. September 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island Bartley, M., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Bouma, S., Lengkeek, W. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic biodiversity on old platforms, young wind farms, and rocky reefs Coolen, J., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Benefits and Disadvantages of Co-Locating Windfarms and Marine Conservation Zones, with a Focus on Commercial Fishing Blyth-Skyrme, R. March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Legal & Policy
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Behavioural Reactions of Cod (Gadus morhua) and Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) to Sound Resembling Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Mueller, C. December 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Behavioral Responses of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to Playbacks of Broadband Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Behavioral Reactions of Harbor Porpoise to Pile-Driving Noise Tougaard, J., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Bats in Dutch Offshore Wind Farms in Autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Development Cris Hein July 2015 Blog Article Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bat Activity in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bat activity during autumn relates to atmospheric conditions: implications for coastal wind energy development Smith, A., McWilliams, S. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Bats
Bat Activity at a Small Wind Turbine in the Baltic Sea Rydell, J., Wickman, A. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Lot 5 Marine Birds in and Around the Future Sites Nearshore Windfarm (NSW) and Q7 Leopold, M., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Fluxes, Flight Paths and Altitudes of Flying Birds 2003-2004 Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Base-Line Investigations of Birds in Relation to an Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand: Results and Conclusions, 2002 Desholm, M., et al. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Raptors
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Birds
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Assessment of Wind‐Farm and Other Bird Casualties from Carcasses Found on a Northumbrian Beach Over an 11‐Year Period Newton, I., Little, B. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Assessment of the Potential for Conflict between Existing Ocean Space Use and Renewable Energy Development off the Coast of Oregon Sullivan, C. June 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Assessment of the Potential for Acoustic Deterrents to Mitigate the Impact on Marine Mammals of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Gordon, J., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Marine Renewables Industry in Relation to Marine Mammals: Synthesis of Work Undertaken by the ICES Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) Murphy, S., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Assessment and Costs of Potential Engineering Solutions for the Mitigation of the Impacts of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Nehls, G., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing use-use interactions at sea: A theoretical framework for spatial decision support tools facilitating co-location in maritime spatial planning Bonnevie, I., Hansen, H., Schrøder, L. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Wang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Impact of Climate Conditions on Harnessing Coastal (Offshore) Wind Energy Akter, S., Loo, J., Hannan, M. November 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Marine Mammals
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals

Pages

Subscribe to Offshore Wind
Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Offshore Wind