Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Noise mitigation during pile-driving efficiently reduces disturbance of marine mammals Nehls, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind and Energy Wildlife Impacts Bispo, R., et al. March 2019 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Raptors
The First Large-Scale Offshore Aerial Survey Using a High-Resolution Camera System McGovern, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Birds
Coastal impact of a hybrid marine farm operating close to the Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, L. May 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Impact of the establishment of US offshore wind power on neodymium flows Fishman, T., Graedel, T. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Meta-Analysis of Finfish Abundance at Offshore Wind Farms Methratta, E., Dardick, W. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
The Underwater Sound Field from Impact Pile Driving and Its Potential Effects on Marine Life Dahl, P., de Jong, C., Popper, A. April 2015 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Acoustic Modeling Report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy deCastro, M., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The politics of Estonia's offshore wind energy programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning Tafon, R., Howarth, D., Griggs, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Floating offshore wind - Economic and ecological challenges of a TLP solution Kausche, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
The influence of stakeholder groups in operation and maintenance services of offshore wind farms: Lesson from Denmark Ahsan, D., Pederson, S. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Site selection process for floating offshore wind farms in Madeira Islands Díaz, H., Fonseca, R., Soares, C. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Turbine Visibility and Visual Impact Threshold Distances Sullivan, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The economics of visual disamenity reductions of offshore wind farms—Review and suggestions from an emerging field Ladenburg, J., Lutzeyer, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Place attachment and marine recreationists' attitudes toward offshore wind energy development Brownlee, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Recreation
Over the Sea and Far Away? A Consideration of the Planning, Politics and Public Perception of Offshore Wind Farms Haggett, C. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Winds of change – Predicting water-based recreationists' support and opposition for offshore wind energy development in the Great Lakes Ferguson, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Recreation
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Installing Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations Quieter: A Performance Overview of the First Full-Scale Demonstration of the AdBm Underwater Noise Abatement System Elzinga, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
AdBm Demonstration at Butendiek Offshore Wind Farm with Ballast Nedam January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Characterizing the benthic community in Maryland’s offshore wind energy areas using a towed camera sled: Developing a method to reduce the effort of image analysis and community description Cruz-Marrero, W., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A three-dimensional underwater sound propagation model for offshore wind farm noise prediction Lin, Y., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The integrated offshore grid in Europe: Exploring challenges for regional energy governance Dedecca, J., Hakvoort, R., Herder, P. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Korean traditional beliefs and renewable energy transitions: Pungsu, shamanism, and the local perception of wind turbines Kim, E., Chung, J., Seo, Y. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Marine wind energy and the North Sea Offshore Grid Initiative: A Multi-Level Perspective on a stalled technology transition? Flynn, B. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
A comparative assessment of proposed offshore wind power demonstration projects in the United States Bates, A., Firestone, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Uncertainty analysis of soil-pile interactions of monopile offshore wind turbine support structures Yeter, B., Garbatov, Y., Soares, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Environmental Sensitivity Modeling and Site Characterization Guttenplan, K., Koopman, M., Belin, D. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan 2008-2015: From Inception through Implementation Smythe, T., Andrescavage, N., Fox, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Integration of marine research results into a maritime spatial plan for Lithuania Mileriene, R., Blažauskas, N., Gulbinskas, S. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Building the Blue Economy: The Role of Marine Spatial Planning in Facilitating Offshore Renewable Energy Development Young, M. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Who cares? European attitudes towards marine and coastal environments Potts, T., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Social licence in the marine sector: A review of understanding and application Kelly, R., Pecl, G., Fleming, A. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Evaluating Changes in the Marine Soundscape of an Offshore Wind Farm via the Machine Learning-Based Source Separation Lin, T., et al. June 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendozaa, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
A path planning approach based on multi-direction A* algorithm for ships navigating within wind farm waters Xie, L., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
The proportion of flatfish recruitment in the North Sea potentially affected by offshore windfarms Barbut, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish

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