Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1328
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Determining Night-Time Distribution of Long-Tailed Ducks Using Satellite Telemetry Allison, T., Perkins, S., Perry, M. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States Gilman, P., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Finding out the Fate of Displaced Birds Searle, K., et al. February 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix I Aquatic Ecological Resource Characterization and Impact Assessment LimnoTech January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix J WEST NEXRAD Analysis: Assessment of Nocturnal Bird Migration Activity from Weather Radar Data for the Proposed Icebreaker Wind Energy Facility, Lake Erie, Ohio Nations, C., Gordon, C. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix K Tetra Tech Bird Survey Report: Spring - Fall 2010 Avian and Bat Studies Report Lake Erie Wind Power Study Svedlow, A., Gilpatrick, L., McIlvain, D. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-1 WEST Summary of Risks to Birds and Bats Gordon, C., Erickson, W. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix M-1 Biological Assessment for Project Icebreaker EDR, D.P.C. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning: Phase 1 Report Kinlan, B., et al. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Distribution and Abundance in the Offshore Environment Final Report Kuletz, K., Labunski, E. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Methodologies for measuring and assessing potential changes in marine mammal behaviour, abundance or distribution arising from the construction, operation and decommissioning of offshore windfarms Diederichs, A., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Investigations into the effects of pile driving at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev II and the FINO III research platform Brandt, M., Diederichs, A., Nehls, G. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Assessing and Managing Effect Spheres of Influence Degraer, S., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Wind Farm - Kriegers Flak: Environmental Impact Assessment Sweden Offshore Wind AB January 2007 Report Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Mammals - Investigations and preparation of environmental impact assessment for Kriegers Flak Offshore Wind Farm Dietz, R., et al. June 2015 Report Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of larger turbines for the offshore wind farm at Krieger's Flak, Sweden. Assessment of impact on marine mammals Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Disturbance Effects on the Harbour Porpoise Population in the North Sea (DEPONS): Status report on model development van Beest, F., et al. February 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Effect of Simulated Seal Scarer Sounds on Harbour Porpoises Hermannsen, L., Mikkelsen, L., Tougaard, J. January 2017 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
First year post-construction monitoring of bats and birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Habitat Mapping and Assessment of Northeast Wind Energy Areas Guida, V., et al. December 2017 Report Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish
Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience Rein, C., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind Farms and Birds: An Updated Analysis of the Effects of Wind Farms on Birds, and Best Practice Guidance on Integrated Planning and Impact Assessment Gove, B., et al. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The Development of Ocean Test Beds for Ocean Technology Adaptation and Integration into the Emerging U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Industry Kirincich, A., et al. May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Seabirds? What seabirds? An exploratory study into the origin of seabirds visiting the SE North Sea and their survival bottlenecks Leopold, M. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A first approach to deal with cumulative effects on birds and bats of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Iteration cycle: Dealing with peaks in counts of birds following active fishing vessels when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Open Ocean Aquaculture and Offshore Wind Farms. A feasibility study on the multifunctional use of offshore wind farms and offshore mariculture in the North Sea area Buck, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
Underwater Acoustic Modeling Report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
AdBm Demonstration at Butendiek Offshore Wind Farm with Ballast Nedam January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan 2008-2015: From Inception through Implementation Smythe, T., Andrescavage, N., Fox, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Harnessing the Wind: How to Advance Wind Power Offshore NRDC July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise
Best Management Practices for North Atlantic Right Whales During Offshore Wind Energy Construction and Operations Along the U.S. East Coast NRDC March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of noise-mitigated offshore pile driving on harbour porpoise abundance in the German Bight 2014-2016 (Gescha 2) Rose, A., et al. June 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Addressing conflicting spatial demands in MSP: Considerations for MSP planners Gee, K., et al. December 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Developing a Habitat Loss Method for Assessing Displacement Impacts from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects on birds of Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ): An overview and integration of insights obtained Hartman, J., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A review of noise abatement systems for offshore wind farm construction noise, and the potential for their application in Scottish waters Verfuss, U., Sinclair, R., Sparling, C. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Upscaling positive effects of scour protection in offshore wind farms Coolen, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Fifth Ornithological Monitoring Report Gill, J., et al. July 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
JWGBIRD Report 2018: Report of the Joint OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea October 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Seabirds
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Biodiversity and the Development of a North Sea Offshore Powerhouse van Steen, H., Buseman, M. May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System Environmental Report/Construction and Operations Plan Tetra Tech Inc. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore windfarms Tonk, L., Rozemeijer, M. October 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island Bartley, M., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
A Case Study on the Effects of Underwater Noise During the Construction of Large Offshore Wind Farms Mason, T., Barham, R., Nedwell, J. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
Is a German Harbour Porpoise Much More Sensitive than a British One? Comparative Analyses of Mandatory Measures for the Protection of Harbour Porposes (Phocoena phocoena) During Offshore Wind Farm Ramming in Germany, Denmark and the UK Luedeke, J. December 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Life Cycle Assessment of a 150 MW Offshore Wind Turbine Farm at Nysted/Roedsand, Denmark Properzi, S., Herk-Hansen, H. July 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Nearfield Habitat
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise

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