Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1393
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Simulation Of Wave Damping Near Coast Due To Offshore Wind Farms Alari, V., Raudsepp, U. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Study on the Marine Growth Effect on the Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines Shi, W., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Ecosystems: A Review Taking an Ecosystem Services Perspective Mangi, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The Multi-Use In Wind Farm Projects: More Conflicts Or A Win-Win Opportunity? Lacroix, D., Sylvain, P. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
The Habitat-Creation Potential of Offshore Wind Farms Elliott, M., Wilson, J. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Understanding Public Responses to Offshore Wind Power Haggett, C. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Noise from Construction and Operation of Offshore Wind Farms Tougaard, J., Madsen, P., Wahlberg, M. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Seismic Response of Large-Scale Prestressed Concrete Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Zhang, P., Ding, H., Conghuan, L. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Long Term Estimations of Low Frequency Noise Levels over Water from an Off-Shore Wind Farm Bolin, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Taming Hurricanes with Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Jacobson, M., Archer, C., Kempton, W. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Coordination and Cooperation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy Maier, N. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow
Pseudo Spectral Analysis of the Energy Entrainment in a Scaled Down Wind Farm Newman, J., Drew, D., Castillo, L. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow
Modeling Large Offshore Wind Farms Under Different Atmospheric Stability Regimes with the Park Wake Model Peña, A., Réthoré, P., Rathmann, O. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Computationally Efficient Modelling of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Offshore Wind Turbines on Gravity Footings Damgaard, M., Andersen, L., Ibsen, L. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, Changes in Flow Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey Michler-Cieluch, T., Kodeih, S. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Energy Profiling of Demersal Fish: A Case-Study in Wind Farm Artificial Reefs De Troch, M., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish
Offshore Marine Renewable Energy Devices as Stepping Stones Across Biogeographical Boundaries Adams, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Is EIA Part of the Wind Power Planning Problem? Smart, D., Stojanovic, T., Warren, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Residency, Site Fidelity and Habitat Use of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) at an Offshore Wind Farm Using Acoustic Telemetry Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fishes at Offshore Wind Farms: A Synthesis of 4 Years of Research Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Ecological Risk as a Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. February 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Human Dimensions
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
An Integrated Visual Impact Assessment Model for Offshore Windfarm Development Depellegrin, D., Blažauskas, N., Egarter-Vigl, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Recreation & Tourism
Marine Mammals Trace Anthropogenic Structures at Sea Russell, D., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds Hawkins, A., Roberts, L., Cheesman, S. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
The Potential of Offshore Wind Farms to Act as Marine Protected Areas Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Biodiversity Offsets for Offshore Wind Farm Projects: The Current Situation in Europe Vaissière, A., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Offshore Wind Farms Development in Relation to Environmental Protected Areas Spiropoulou, I., Karamanis, D., Kehayias, G. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Off-Shore Wind Farm Development: Present Status and Challenges Perveen, R., Kishor, N., Mohanty, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Community Benefits, Framing and the Social Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms: An Experimental Study in England Walker, B., Wiersma, B., Bailey, E. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Modelling the Spatial Concentrations of Bird Migration to Assess Conflicts with Wind Turbines Liechti, F., Guélat, J., Komenda-Zehnder, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Modeling of Underwater Noise from Pile Driving using Coupled Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Model with Improved Parabolic Equation Starting Field Park, J., Seong, W., Lee, K. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Do Windmill Parks Function as a Refugium? Derweduwen, J., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Behavioral Reactions of Harbor Porpoise to Pile-Driving Noise Tougaard, J., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Pile Driving on the Behavior of Cod and Sole Thomsen, F., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Renewable Energy Developments in an Uncertain World: The Case of Offshore Wind and Birds in the UK Masden, E., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Investigating the Co-Existence of Fisheries and Offshore Renewable Energy in the UK: Identification of a Mitigation Agenda for Fishing Effort Displacement de Groot, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Near-Shore Wind Power - Protected Seascapes, Environmentalists' Attitudes, and the Technocratic Planning Perspective Wolsink, M. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Performance and Integrity of Protective Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Structures after Three Years Under Offshore Site Conditions Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals
A Life Cycle Co-Benefits Assessment of Wind Power in China Xue, B., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Wake Effects of Large Offshore Wind Farms Identified from Satellite SAR Christiansen, M., Hasager, C. October 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Why Offshore Wind Energy? Esteban, M., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
In Situ Mortality Experiments with Juvenile Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Relation to Impulsive Sound Levels Caused by Pile Driving of Windmill Foundations Dubusschere, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Physical and Numerical Large-Scale Wave Basin Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction and Wave Impact Phenomena Yim, S., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Mitigating Wind-Turbine Induced Avian Mortality: Sensory, Aerodynamic and Cognitive Constraints and Options May, R., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment

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