Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
A strategic analysis of tidal current energy conversion systems in the European Union Segura, E., Morales, R., Somolinos, J. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine spatial planning and stakeholder collaboration Brooks, P., Jedele, T. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Tracing regime shifts in the provision of coastal-marine cultural ecosystem services Gee, K., Burkhard, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental implications of offshore energy Gill, A., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning Greenhill, L. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine spatial planning Ehler, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Compatibility of offshore energy installations with marine protected areas Thurstan, R., Yates, K., O'Leary, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Methods and utility of ecosystem service trade-off analysis for guiding marine planning of offshore energy Stevens, J., Lester, S., White, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The future of marine spatial planning Bradshaw, C., Greenhill, L., Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Finding out the Fate of Displaced Birds Searle, K., et al. February 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Obligations and Aspirations: A Critical Evaluation of Offshore Wind Farm Cumulative Impact Assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Offshore wind energy resource assessment under techno-economic and social-ecological constraints Magar, V., Gross, M., González-García, L. February 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Windfarms Severinsen, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore wind zoning in China: Method and experience Ou, L., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Assessing and Managing Effect Spheres of Influence Degraer, S., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Exploitation of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts, and Sustainable Management Salomon, M., Markus, T. January 2018 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management Ölçer, A., et al. January 2018 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Swimming Speed of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) During Playbacks of Offshore Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., Van de Voorde, S., Jennings, N. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Monitoring the Environmental Effects of Construction and Initial Operation of the First Offshore Wind Farm in the US James Miller December 2017 Blog Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Place attachment and marine recreationists' attitudes toward offshore wind energy development Brownlee, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Recreation
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
Will Communities "Open-Up" to Offshore Wind? Lessons Learned from New England Islands in the United States Klain, S., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Taiwanese white dolphins and offshore wind farms Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Habitat Mapping and Assessment of Northeast Wind Energy Areas Guida, V., et al. December 2017 Report Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore wind farm in marine spatial planning and the stakeholders engagement: Opportunities and challenges for Taiwan Zhang, Y., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
The sustainable worldwide offshore wind energy potential: A systematic review Keivanpour, S., Ramudhin, A., Kadi, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Responses of Two Marine Top Predators to an Offshore Wind Farm Mclean, N., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Feasibility Appraisal of an Offshore Wind Farm Located in Greece Soursou, P. October 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Method to Estimate the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Good or Bad Vibrations? Impacts of Anthropogenic Vibration on the Marine Epibenthos Roberts, L., Elliott, M. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Northeast Offshore Wind Regional Market Characterization: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind Grace, R., et al. October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Density dependence and marine bird populations: are wind farm assessments precautionary? Horswill, C., O'Brien, S., Robinson, R. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Bubble Curtains Attenuate Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction and Reduce Temporary Habitat Loss for Harbour Porpoises Dähne, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Ocean Beliefs and Support for an Offshore Wind Energy Project Bidwell, D. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Fish
A Framework for Regulating Underwater Noise During Pile Driving Andersson, M., et al. August 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Feasibility Study for Meta-Analysis of Red-Throated Diver Displacement Dirksen, S., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Evaluating Benefits of Offshore Wind Energy Projects in NEPA AECOM July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-Field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Carton, G., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis occurrence in offshore wind energy areas near Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA Leiter, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Social licence in the marine sector: A review of understanding and application Kelly, R., Pecl, G., Fleming, A. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Making Marine Noise Pollution Impacts Heard: The Case of Cetaceans in the North Sea within Life Cycle Impact Assessment Middel, H, Verones, F June 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Onset of Barotrauma Injuries Related to Number of Pile Driving Strike Exposures in Hybrid Striped Bass Casper, B., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction Graham, I., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seabirds? What seabirds? An exploratory study into the origin of seabirds visiting the SE North Sea and their survival bottlenecks Leopold, M. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Environmental and Structural Safety Issues Related to Wind Energy Dai, K., Gao, K., Huang, Z. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines Letcher, T. May 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
A Markov Model for Planning and Permitting Offshore Wind Energy: A Case Study of Radio-Tracked Terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA Cranmer, A., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Mooring System Considerations for Renewable Energy Standards Cribbs, A., et al. May 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XI Schwartz, S. May 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: Relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables Heinänen, S., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Seabirds as samplers of the marine environment - a case study of northern gannets Garthe, S., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Norfolk Boreas Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030 Beiter, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Is There a State-of-the-Art to Reduce Pile-Driving Noise? Bellmann, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals

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