Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1260
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
A Baseline Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Offshore Windfarm Cables Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
A Biogeographic Assessment of Seabirds, Deep Sea Corals and Ocean Habitats of the New York Bight: Science to Support Offshore Spatial Planning Menza, C., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds
A Case Study on the Effects of Underwater Noise During the Construction of Large Offshore Wind Farms Mason, T., Barham, R., Nedwell, J. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A comparative assessment of proposed offshore wind power demonstration projects in the United States Bates, A., Firestone, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
A Computational Method to Predict and Study Underwater Noise due to Pile Driving Schecklman, S., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Conceptual Model to Determine Vulnerability of Wildlife Populations to Offshore Wind Energy Development Goodale, M., Stenhouse, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
A first approach to deal with cumulative effects on birds and bats of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
A Framework for Regulating Underwater Noise During Pile Driving Andersson, M., et al. August 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
A Life Cycle Co-Benefits Assessment of Wind Power in China Xue, B., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Markov Model for Planning and Permitting Offshore Wind Energy: A Case Study of Radio-Tracked Terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA Cranmer, A., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning Pınarbaşı, K., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
A Review Of Assessment Methodologies For Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
A strategic analysis of tidal current energy conversion systems in the European Union Segura, E., Morales, R., Somolinos, J. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A three-dimensional underwater sound propagation model for offshore wind farm noise prediction Lin, Y., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Socio-economics
Adapting Offshore Wind Power Foundations to Local Environment Hammar, L., Andersson, S., Rosenberg, R. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
AdBm Demonstration at Butendiek Offshore Wind Farm with Ballast Nedam January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Advancing the Environmentally Responsible Development of Offshore Wind Energy in New York State: A Regulatory Review and Stakeholder Perceptions New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Aerial Surveys Of Round 3, Zone 5 For Waterbirds - Final Report WWT Consulting May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
An Analysis of Offshore Wind Development: A Non-market, Stated Preference Approach to Measure Community Perceptions and Opinions and Estimate Willingness to Pay in Two Lake Michigan Regions Knapp, L., et al. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030 Beiter, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
An Integrated Visual Impact Assessment Model for Offshore Windfarm Development Depellegrin, D., Blažauskas, N., Egarter-Vigl, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Analysis of Effects of Wind Turbine Generator Array for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Subbayya, S. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of the Argyll Array Turbine Layout Iterations in Relation to Ornithological Constraints Bullman, R., Shaylon, S. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix I Aquatic Ecological Resource Characterization and Impact Assessment LimnoTech January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix J WEST NEXRAD Analysis: Assessment of Nocturnal Bird Migration Activity from Weather Radar Data for the Proposed Icebreaker Wind Energy Facility, Lake Erie, Ohio Nations, C., Gordon, C. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix K Tetra Tech Bird Survey Report: Spring - Fall 2010 Avian and Bat Studies Report Lake Erie Wind Power Study Svedlow, A., Gilpatrick, L., McIlvain, D. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-1 WEST Summary of Risks to Birds and Bats Gordon, C., Erickson, W. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix M-1 Biological Assessment for Project Icebreaker EDR, D.P.C. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Application of Reanalysis Data to Estimate Offshore Wind Potential in EEZ of India Based on Marine Ecosystem Considerations Nagababu, G., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem

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