Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore Wind Energy

 

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1411
Title Authorsort ascending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon in the New York Wind Energy Area: implications of future development in an offshore wind energy site Ingram, E., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Perceptions of Commercial and Recreational Fishers on the Potential Ecological Impacts of the Block Island Wind Farm (US) ten Brink, T., Dalton, T. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Marine Biodiversity and the Development of a North Sea Offshore Powerhouse van Steen, H., Buseman, M. May 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Public acceptance of offshore wind power: does perceived fairness of process matter? Firestone, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Energy: Good Practice in Impact Assessment, Mitigation and Compensation Lüdeke, J. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System Environmental Report/Construction and Operations Plan Tetra Tech Inc. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore windfarms Tonk, L., Rozemeijer, M. October 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island Bartley, M., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Measuring responses of harbour seals to potential aversive acoustic mitigation signals using controlled exposure behavioural response studies Gordon, J., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Determining the dependence of marine pile driving sound levels on strike energy, pile penetration, and propagation effects using a linear mixed model based on damped cylindrical spreading Martin, S., Barclay, D. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals Erbe, C., Dunlop, R., Dolman, S. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Man-Made Sound on Fishes Hawkins, A., Popper, A. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An analysis of the state of impact assessment research for low carbon power production: Building a better understanding of information and knowledge gaps Hanna, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine governance in an industrialised ocean: A case study of the emerging marine renewable energy industry Wright, G. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Overview of ocean power technology Wilberforce, T., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing use-use interactions at sea: A theoretical framework for spatial decision support tools facilitating co-location in maritime spatial planning Bonnevie, I., Hansen, H., Schrøder, L. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
International good practices for facilitating transboundary collaboration in Marine Spatial Planning Kull, M., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The mechanics of blue growth: Management of oceanic natural resource use with multiple, interacting sectors Klinger, D., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Three-dimensional mapping of the benthic invertebrates biophony with a compact four-hydrophones array Gervaise, C., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction Invertebrates
Benthos distribution modelling and its relevance for marine ecosystem management Reiss, H., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Functional and structural responses to marine urbanisation Mayer-Pinto, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance Invertebrates
Precipitation reduction during Hurricane Harvey with simulated offshore wind farms Pan, Y., Yan, C., Archer, C. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Corridors for aliens but not for natives: effects of marine urban sprawl at a regional scale Airoldi, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Vitamine ENA: A framework for the development of ecosystem-based indicators for decision makers Safi, G., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method Ho, L., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing the Impact of Climate Conditions on Harnessing Coastal (Offshore) Wind Energy Akter, S., Loo, J., Hannan, M. November 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Wave Climate and Coastline Response of the Dutch Coast: Investigating the effect of large-scale offshore wind farm developments in the North Sea Ballas, G. November 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Benthic production and energy export from man-made structures to softbottoms: does it matter? Dannheim, J., et al. September 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Offshore Wind Farm Wake Effect on Stratification and Coastal Upwelling Paskyabi, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
A 30-year projection of the future wind energy resources in the coastal environment of the Black Sea Rusu, E. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Placing Green Energy in the Sea: Offshore Wind Farms, Dolphins, Oysters, and the Territorial Politics of the Intertidal Zone in Taiwan Hung, P. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Marine Renewable Energy Converters and Biofouling: A Review on Impacts and Prevention Titah-Benbouzid, H., Benbouzid, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction Invertebrates
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Oil and gas platforms as artificial substrates for epibenthic North Sea fauna: Effects of location and depth Schutter, M., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Low genetic connectivity in a fouling amphipod among man-made structures in the southern North Sea Luttikhuizen, P., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Oceanographic and biological influences on recruitment of benthic invertebrates to hard substrata on the Oregon shelf Meyer, K., Li, Y., Young, C. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Understanding the Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Well-Being Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Environmental impact monitoring reloaded Degraer, S., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Selected findings from the baseline and targeted monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Memoirs on the Marine Environment - Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: a Continued move towards Integration and Quantification Degraer, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Understanding the Role of Offshore Structures in Managing Potential Watersipora Invasions Page, H., et al. February 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
In situ observations of suspended particulate matter plumes at an offshore wind farm, southern North Sea Baeye, M., Fettweis, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Kármán vortex and turbulent wake generation by wind park piles Grashorn, S., Stanev, E. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical study of multi-scale flow-sediment-structure interactions using a multiphase approach Nagel, T. July 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Human dimensions of marine hydrokinetic energies: Current knowledge and research gaps Ruano-Chamorro, C., Castilla, J., Gelcich, S. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Practical Approaches and Advances in Spatial Tools to Achieve Multi-Objective Marine Spatial Planning Lombard, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
From identification of compatibilities and conflicts to reaching marine spatial allocation agreements. Review of actions required and relevant tools and processes Kyriazi, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Renewables-to-reefs: Response to Fowler et al. Smyth, K., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Renewables-to-reefs: Participatory multicriteria decision analysis is required to optimize wind farm decommissioning Fowler, A., Macreadie, P., Booth, D. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit Rudolph, D., Haggett, C., Aitken, M. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Local support for renewable energy technologies? Attitudes towards local near-shore wind farms among second home owners and permanent area residents on the Danish coast Johansen, K. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement, Visual Impacts
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Positive energies? An empirical study of community energy participation and attitudes to renewable energy Bauwens, T., Devine-Wright, P. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Floating Offshore Wind Energy in California Bang, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
The Scientific Validity of Criticisms made by the RSPB of Metrics used to Assess Population Level Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds Cook, A., Robinson, R. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
An ecosystem approach for studying the impact of offshore wind farms: a French case study Pezy, J., Raoux, A., Dauvin, J. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Multi-use of the sea: A wide array of opportunities from site-specific cases across Europe Bocci, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites: Final Report Horne, J., et al. June 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor Jakubowska, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
The large-scale impact of offshore wind farm structures on pelagic primary productivity in the southern North Sea Slavik, K., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Contributions of marine infrastructures to marine planning and protected area networking Shabtay, A., Portman, M., Carmel, Y. June 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Nonmarket Valuation of Marine Resources in the Northeast: Implications for Recreational Fisheries Management and Offshore Wind Energy Development Carr-Harris, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Visual Impacts
Public estimates of support for offshore wind energy: False consensus, pluralistic ignorance, and partisan effects Sokoloski, R., Markowitz, E., Bidwell, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Seeing clearly in a virtual reality: Tourist reactions to an offshore wind project Teisl, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Challenges of decommissioning offshore wind farms: Overview of the European experience Topham, E., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Ocean sprawl facilitates dispersal and connectivity of protected species Henry, L., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Smythe, T., McCann, J. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-location opportunities for renewable energies and aquaculture facilities in the Canary Archipelago Weiss, C., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Sustainable use of marine resources through offshore wind and mussel farm co-location Di Tullio, G., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time Graham, I., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Life cycle cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy under the climatic conditions in Southeast Asia – Setting the bottom-line for deployment Nian, V., Liu, Y., Zhong, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Public Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms in the Netherlands: Testing and Adjusting the Public Acceptance Models for a Better Wind of Change Dion, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Damage analysis of ship collisions with offshore wind turbine foundations Moulas, D., Shafiee, M., Mehmanparast, A. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Improving policies and regulations for environmental-friendly ocean renewable energy development in Korea Park, J., Kim, T. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
An Offshore Renewable Energy Environmental Research & Innovation Strategy for the UK Natural Environment Research Council December 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental and Consenting Barriers to Developing Floating Wind Farms Including Innovative Solutions Natural Envrironment Research Council December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Use of Static Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) for monitoring cetaceans at Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs) for Marine Scotland Embling, C., et al. October 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Modeling spatiotemporal abundance of mobile wildlife in highly variable environments using boosted GAMLSS hurdle models Smith, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Exploring the wakes of large offshore wind farms Emeis, S., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment

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