Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1294
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort ascending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dutch North Sea Scheidat, M., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Hearing in Fish and their Reactions to Sounds from Offshore Wind Farms Wahlberg, M., Westerberg, H. March 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Life Cycle Assessment of the Offshore Wind Farm Alpha Ventus Wagner, H., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Local Effects of Blue Mussels Around Turbine Foundations in an Ecosystem Model of Nysted Off-Shore Wind Farm, Denmark Maar, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Modeling Carcass Removal Time for Avian Mortality Assessment in Wind Farms Using Survival Analysis Bispo, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Modelling Harbour Porpoise Seasonal Density as a Function of the German Bight Environment: Implications for Management Gilles, A., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Modelling of Pile Driving Noise by Means of Wavenumber Integration Lippert, T., Lippert, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Capital Cost Estimation in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf - A Reference Class Approach Kaiser, M., Snyder, B. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Farms as Productive Sites or Ecological Traps for Gadoid Fishes? - Impact on Growth, Condition Index and Diet Composition Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Offshore Windmill Farms: Threats to or Possibilities for the Marine Environment Petersen, J., Malm, T. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Windmills and the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish Öhman, M., Sigray, P., Westerberg, H. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Particle Motion Measured at an Operational Wind Turbine in Relation to Hearing Sensitivity in Fish Sigray, P., Andersson, M. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Perception of Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals by a Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Presence of Simulated Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Lucke, K., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Perceived Concerns and Possible Management Strategies for Governing 'Wind-Farm Mariculture Integration' Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Pile Driving Zone of Responsiveness Extends Beyond 20 km for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)) Tougaard, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Predicting Underwater Radiated Noise Levels due to the First Offshore Wind Turbine Installation in the U.S. Kim, H., Miller, J., Potty, G. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound Casper, B., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Reflections on Integrating Operations and Maintenance Activities of Offshore Wind Farms and Mariculture Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm in the Danish North Sea Brandt, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Risk Formulation For The Sonic Effects Of Offshore Wind Farms On Fish In The EU Region Kikuchi, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Seal Scarers as a Tool to Deter Harbour Porpoises from Offshore Construction Sites Brandt, M., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seasonal Distribution Of Harbour Porpoises And Possible Interference Of Offshore Wind Farms In The German North Sea Gilles, A., Scheidat, M., Siebert, U. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Simulation Of Wave Damping Near Coast Due To Offshore Wind Farms Alari, V., Raudsepp, U. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Study on the Marine Growth Effect on the Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines Shi, W., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Ecosystems: A Review Taking an Ecosystem Services Perspective Mangi, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The Multi-Use In Wind Farm Projects: More Conflicts Or A Win-Win Opportunity? Lacroix, D., Sylvain, P. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
The Habitat-Creation Potential of Offshore Wind Farms Elliott, M., Wilson, J. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Understanding Public Responses to Offshore Wind Power Haggett, C. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Noise from Construction and Operation of Offshore Wind Farms Tougaard, J., Madsen, P., Wahlberg, M. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Seismic Response of Large-Scale Prestressed Concrete Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Zhang, P., Ding, H., Conghuan, L. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Long Term Estimations of Low Frequency Noise Levels over Water from an Off-Shore Wind Farm Bolin, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Taming Hurricanes with Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Jacobson, M., Archer, C., Kempton, W. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Coordination and Cooperation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy Maier, N. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Pseudo Spectral Analysis of the Energy Entrainment in a Scaled Down Wind Farm Newman, J., Drew, D., Castillo, L. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Modeling Large Offshore Wind Farms Under Different Atmospheric Stability Regimes with the Park Wake Model Peña, A., Réthoré, P., Rathmann, O. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Computationally Efficient Modelling of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Offshore Wind Turbines on Gravity Footings Damgaard, M., Andersen, L., Ibsen, L. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey Michler-Cieluch, T., Kodeih, S. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device

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