Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1392
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort ascending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Seabirds? What seabirds? An exploratory study into the origin of seabirds visiting the SE North Sea and their survival bottlenecks Leopold, M. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A first approach to deal with cumulative effects on birds and bats of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Iteration cycle: Dealing with peaks in counts of birds following active fishing vessels when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Human Dimensions
Open Ocean Aquaculture and Offshore Wind Farms. A feasibility study on the multifunctional use of offshore wind farms and offshore mariculture in the North Sea area Buck, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Underwater Acoustic Modeling Report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech December 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
AdBm Demonstration at Butendiek Offshore Wind Farm with Ballast Nedam January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan 2008-2015: From Inception through Implementation Smythe, T., Andrescavage, N., Fox, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Harnessing the Wind: How to Advance Wind Power Offshore NRDC July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise
Best Management Practices for North Atlantic Right Whales During Offshore Wind Energy Construction and Operations Along the U.S. East Coast NRDC March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of noise-mitigated offshore pile driving on harbour porpoise abundance in the German Bight 2014-2016 (Gescha 2) Rose, A., et al. June 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Addressing conflicting spatial demands in MSP: Considerations for MSP planners Gee, K., et al. December 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Developing a Habitat Loss Method for Assessing Displacement Impacts from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects on birds of Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ): An overview and integration of insights obtained Hartman, J., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A review of noise abatement systems for offshore wind farm construction noise, and the potential for their application in Scottish waters Verfuss, U., Sinclair, R., Sparling, C. January 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Upscaling positive effects of scour protection in offshore wind farms Coolen, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Fifth Ornithological Monitoring Report Gill, J., et al. July 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
JWGBIRD Report 2018: Report of the Joint OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea October 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Seabirds
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Biodiversity and the Development of a North Sea Offshore Powerhouse van Steen, H., Buseman, M. May 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System Environmental Report/Construction and Operations Plan Tetra Tech Inc. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore windfarms Tonk, L., Rozemeijer, M. October 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island Bartley, M., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Well-Being Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Environmental impact monitoring reloaded Degraer, S., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Selected findings from the baseline and targeted monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Memoirs on the Marine Environment - Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: a Continued move towards Integration and Quantification Degraer, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Understanding the Role of Offshore Structures in Managing Potential Watersipora Invasions Page, H., et al. February 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Floating Offshore Wind Energy in California Bang, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
The Scientific Validity of Criticisms made by the RSPB of Metrics used to Assess Population Level Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds Cook, A., Robinson, R. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites: Final Report Horne, J., et al. June 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
An Offshore Renewable Energy Environmental Research & Innovation Strategy for the UK Natural Environment Research Council December 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental and Consenting Barriers to Developing Floating Wind Farms Including Innovative Solutions Natural Envrironment Research Council December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Use of Static Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) for monitoring cetaceans at Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs) for Marine Scotland Embling, C., et al. October 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
U.S. National Debate Topic 2014-2015: The Ocean H.W. Wilson Company January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Offshore Energy Structures Karimirad, M. January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Ludewig, E. January 2015 Book Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management Ölçer, A., et al. January 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines Letcher, T. May 2017 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction Lynn, P. December 2011 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts, and Sustainable Management Salomon, M., Markus, T. January 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Wind and Energy Wildlife Impacts Bispo, R., et al. March 2019 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Physical Environment
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Human Dimensions
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats

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