Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals
Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Feasibility off the California Central Coast Feinberg, L., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Compendium of Avian Occurrence Information for the Continental Shelf Waters along the Atlantic Coast of the United States: Final Report (Database Selection - Shorebirds) O'Connell, A., Spiegel, C., Johnson, S. April 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Environmental Assessment Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Office of Renewable Energy Programs December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem
Ornithology Technical Report for the proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm projects Burton, N., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2013 Corbetta, G., Pineda, I., Moccia, J. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Power Production in the North Sea Draget, E. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee: Progress Report on Fluxes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. March 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Fluxes, Flight Paths and Altitudes of Flying Birds 2003-2004 Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Foraging Ranges of Northern Gannets in Relation to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the UK: 2010-2012 Langston, R., Teuten, E., Butler, A. December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Development: Macrobenthic Ecology Study - 2007 Emu June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm: Diver Surveys 2009-10 Percival, S. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Cumulative Impacts Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms Renewable UK June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Final Report on Aerial Monitoring of Seals near Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report on a Red-throated Diver Agent-Based Model to Assess the Cumulative Impact from Offshore Wind Farms Topping, C., Petersen, I. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Final Report on the Effect of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2014 Corbetta, G., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
TROPOS Project Final Report Brito, J. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Submarine Cable Spacing Guidance TÜV SÜD PMSS, Red Penguin Associates December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
D2.4 Collation of Off‐shore Wind‐Wave Dynamics Bredmose, H., et al. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
D4.06 Data Reports and Databases: Data on Coastal and Offshore Wind Measurements Courtney, M., et al. February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
D2.6 Report on Offshore Wind System Monitoring Practice and Normalisation Procedures Schaumann, P., et al. December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine Wind Farms and Seabirds: Updated National Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Mitigation of Underwater Pile Driving Noise During Offshore Construction: Final Report Stokes, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Effects on Harbour Porpoises from Rødsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 22: Socio-Economics Beeden, D. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 15: Commercial Fisheries Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Advancing the Environmentally Responsible Development of Offshore Wind Energy in New York State: A Regulatory Review and Stakeholder Perceptions New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region Petruny-Parker, M., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
MR1 & MR2 Current State of Knowledge of the Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Generation Devices on Marine Mammals and Research Requirements: Update, September 2014 Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
MR6.1 Review of Methodology and Main Results of the JCP Analysis of Cetacean Densities in the Context of Marine Renewable Development Lonergan, M., Hammond, P. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MR6.2 Definition of 'Range' in the Context of Marine Renewable Energy Development and Marine Mammal Conservation Northridge, S. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part A: Methods Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: A First Approach to Deal with Cumulative Effects on Birds and Bats of Offshore Wind Farms and Other Human Activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Planning for Wales - Strategic Scoping Exercise Welsh Government March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales Welsh Assembly Government February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Marine Spatial Planning: A Step-by-Step Approach toward Ecosystem-based Management Ehler, C., Douvere, F. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Scotland's National Marine Plan - A Single Framework for Managing Our Seas Marine Scotland March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland's Seas: Research Implementation Strategy Scottish Government September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Concerning an Act on Offshore Renewable Energy Production (the Offshore Energy Act) Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy January 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine Spatial Planning - Current Status 2014: National Planning in Sweden's Territorial Waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Risk Assessment for Marine Vessel Traffic and Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Navigation
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Benefits and Disadvantages of Co-Locating Windfarms and Marine Conservation Zones, with a Focus on Commercial Fishing Blyth-Skyrme, R. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Legal and Policy
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
SORIANT VUM - final report von Benda-Beckmann, A., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of pile-driving sound on the survival of fish larvae Bolle, L., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing frequencies of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) temporarily affected by played back offshore pile driving sounds Kastelein, R., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals

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