Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1297
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Observations of Seabirds at Offshore Wind Turbines near Blyth in Northeast England Rothery, P., Newton, I., Little, B. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessment of Wind‐Farm and Other Bird Casualties from Carcasses Found on a Northumbrian Beach Over an 11‐Year Period Newton, I., Little, B. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Significance of Parameter Uncertainties for the Prediction of Offshore Pile Driving Noise Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Wang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding Bird Collisions at Wind Farms: An Updated Review on the Causes and Possible Mitigation Strategies Marques, A., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Habitat Use and Selection of Black Scoters in Southern New England and Siting of Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Loring, P., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Will Offshore Energy Face "Fair Winds and Following Seas"?: Understanding the Factors Influencing Offshore Wind Acceptance Teisl, M., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife Goodale, W., Milman, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Practical Management of Cumulative Anthropogenic Impacts with Working Marine Examples Wright, A., Kyhn, L. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Ecosystem
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Study and Application of Underwater Noise Impact in Coastal Region off Western Taiwan Cheng, Y., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Meeting the Quest for Spatial Efficiency: Progress and Prospects of Extensive Aquaculture within Offshore Wind Farms Buck, B., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Inshore-Offshore Comparison of Parasite Infestation in Mytilus edulis: Implications for Open Ocean Aquaculture Buck, B., et al. April 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Main Characteristics, Problems, and Prospects for Western European Coastal Seas Dauvin, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Similar Diversity-Disturbance Responses to Different Physical Impacts: Three Cases of Small-Scale Biodiversity Increase in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms: Modeling Approach, Experimental Setup, and Results Fricke, M., Rolfes, R. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
The Legal Framework for Offshore Wind Farms: A Critical Analysis of the Consents Process Gibson, E., Howsamn, P. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Private Incentives for the Emergence of Co-Production of Offshore Wind Energy and Mussel Aquaculture Griffin, R., Buck, B., Krause, G. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
The Co-Location of Offshore Windfarms and Decapod Fisheries in the UK: Constraints and Opportunities Hooper, T., Austen, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Secondary Hard Substrate on the Distribution and Abundance of Aurelia aurita in the Western Baltic Sea Janßen, H., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Behavioral Responses of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to Playbacks of Broadband Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
On a Hybrid Model for the Prediction of Pile Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farms Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Marine Renewable Energy Development: Assessing the Benthic Footprint at Multiple Scales Miller, R., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
The State of Rhode Island's Pioneering Marine Spatial Plan Olsen, S., McCann, J., Fugate, G. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Involving the Public in the Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Portman, M. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Eco-Hydro-Acoustic Modeling and its Use as an EIA Tool Rossington, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Impact Hypothesis for Offshore Wind Farms: Explanatory Models for Species Distribution at Extremely Exposed Rocky Areas Schläppy, M., Saskov, A., Dahlgren, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Resolving Fine-Scale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Skov, H., Thomsen, F. December 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
The Current State of Offshore Wind Energy Technology Development Sun, X., Huang, D., Wu, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The UK Offshore Wind Power Programme: A Sea-Change in UK Energy Policy? Toke, D. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Lessons from Stakeholder Dialogues on Marine Aquaculture in Offshore Wind Farms: Perceived Potentials, Constraints and Research Gaps Wever, L., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Spatially Explicit Model of Wintering Common Loons: Conservation Implications Winiarski, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Strengthening the Role of Science in Marine Governance through Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Wright, G. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The Key Technologies and Development of Offshore Wind Farm in China Wu, J., Wang, Z., Wang, G. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Special Issue: Renewable Ocean Energy Development and the Environment Zydlewski, G., Copping, A., Redden, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Dark Green Electricity Comes from the Sea: Capitalizing on Ecological Merits of Offshore Wind Power? Toonen, H., Lindeboom, H. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Floating Offshore Turbines Tande, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Leading Edge Erosion of Coated Wind Turbine Blades: Review of Coating Life Models Slot, H., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the North Sea on Fish Communities Stenberg, C., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish

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