Offshore Wind

Capturing energy from offshore wind.

Offshore Wind Energy

 

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1429
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise Elmer, K., et al. February 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
The Underwater Sound Field from Impact Pile Driving and Its Potential Effects on Marine Life Dahl, P., de Jong, C., Popper, A. April 2015 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Is Offshore Wind Development a Threat to the North Atlantic Right Whale? Luke Hanna August 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Coastal Wave Parks Should Not Interfere with Gray Whale Migrations Andrea Copping April 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Environmental Effects Evaluation Tool Andrea Copping February 2011 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Seven Offshore Wind Pilot Projects Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Luke Hanna January 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Floating Offshore Wind Sound Analysis Jonathan Whiting August 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
The First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Jonathan Whiting June 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
London Array is Inaugurated as the World's Largest Turbine Array Jonathan Whiting July 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
US Department of Energy Announces Funding for Three Pioneering Offshore Wind Projects Alicia Gorton June 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Seals and Windfarms in the North Sea Molly Grear August 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Turbines and Commercial Vessel Traffic in the Atlantic Ocean Molly Grear August 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
INORE: Sharing is Knowing Cameron McNatt and Michele Martini October 2014 Blog Article OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind
Bats and Wind Energy Development Cris Hein July 2015 Blog Article Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Monitoring the Environmental Effects of Construction and Initial Operation of the First Offshore Wind Farm in the US James Miller December 2017 Blog Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Changing the Game: New Renewable Energy Support Website Launched Jim Strittholt April 2018 Blog Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind

Pages

Subscribe to Offshore Wind
Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Offshore Wind