Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
OES GIS Map: Offshore Installations Worldwide Ocean Energy Systems (OES) January 2014 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm RPS Group March 2018 Website Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
How Deep does an Anchor Penetrate the Seafloor? Maushake, C. November 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Modelling Seabird Collision Risk with Off-Shore Wind Farms Mateos, M., Arroyo, G., Rosario, J. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Harbour Porpoises in the Southern North Sea - Analysis of Potential Influences of Alpha Ventus in the Context of General Distribution Trends Gilles, A., et al. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Cautious but Committed - Towards a More Adaptive Environmental Planning Approach for Wind Energy? Köppel, J. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Birds and Offshore Wind: Studying and Assessing Effects Pereksta, D. July 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Effects of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations on Mobile Demersal Megafauna and Pelagic Fish - Research at the Alpha Ventus Offshore Wind Farm Krone, R., Krägefsky, S. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment: Progress and Challenges Polagye, B. January 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Effects of Offshore Windfarms on Marine Wildlife - A Synthesis for Swedish Waters Bergström, L., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Obstruction Lighting - Issues and Mitigation Blew, J., Nehls, G., Prall, U. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
The Local Fish Community, Indifferent to the Wind Farm? van Hal, R., Griffioen, B. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Harbor Seals & Harbor Porpoises-Pile Driving: Detection, Behavioral Response and TTS Kastelein, R. November 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Offshore Wind Farms, New Players in Marine Ecosystems Lindeboom, H. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Porpoises and Offshore Windfarms - Conflict, Co-Existence or Refuge Scheidat, M. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Cod and Sole Behaviour in an Offshore Wind Farm Winter, E., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Fish
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise Elmer, K., et al. February 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Underwater Sound Field from Impact Pile Driving and Its Potential Effects on Marine Life Dahl, P., de Jong, C., Popper, A. April 2015 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Is Offshore Wind Development a Threat to the North Atlantic Right Whale? Luke Hanna August 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Coastal Wave Parks Should Not Interfere with Gray Whale Migrations Andrea Copping April 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Environmental Effects Evaluation Tool Andrea Copping February 2011 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Seven Offshore Wind Pilot Projects Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Luke Hanna January 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Floating Offshore Wind Sound Analysis Jonathan Whiting August 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
The First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Jonathan Whiting June 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
London Array is Inaugurated as the World's Largest Turbine Array Jonathan Whiting July 2013 Blog Article Offshore Wind
US Department of Energy Announces Funding for Three Pioneering Offshore Wind Projects Alicia Gorton June 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Seals and Windfarms in the North Sea Molly Grear August 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Turbines and Commercial Vessel Traffic in the Atlantic Ocean Molly Grear August 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
INORE: Sharing is Knowing Cameron McNatt and Michele Martini October 2014 Blog Article OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind
Bats and Wind Energy Development Cris Hein July 2015 Blog Article Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Monitoring the Environmental Effects of Construction and Initial Operation of the First Offshore Wind Farm in the US James Miller December 2017 Blog Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Changing the Game: New Renewable Energy Support Website Launched Jim Strittholt April 2018 Blog Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind

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