Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Environmental Impacts Due to Fixed and Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Brewer, M. September 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Where Are All the People? A Study on the Integration of Socioeconomics and Marine Conservation Planning Feldman, L. May 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Power from the Brave New Ocean: Marine Renewable Energy and Ecological Risks Hammar, L. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Fish, Socio-economics
Assessment of the Potential for Conflict between Existing Ocean Space Use and Renewable Energy Development off the Coast of Oregon Sullivan, C. June 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Populationsdynamik von kommerziell genutzten Fischarten in (durch Offshore- Windkraftanlagen) veränderter Ökosystemstruktur Diembeck, D. January 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fish at Offshore Wind Farms - Towards an Integrated Management Approach Reubens, J. August 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Offshore Wind Power Reef Effects and Reef Fauna Roles Krone, R. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Behavioural Reactions of Cod (Gadus morhua) and Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) to Sound Resembling Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Mueller, C. December 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Implications for Offshore Wind Farm Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment: How the Manipulation of Density and Breeding Season Parameters Affects the Outcomes of Collision Risk Modelling Tongue, A. September 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Valuing Public Preferences for Offshore Wind Power: A Choice Experimental Approach Krueger, A. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Power Connections for Offshore Wind Farms Schachner, J. January 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
An Analysis of Offshore Wind Development: A Non-market, Stated Preference Approach to Measure Community Perceptions and Opinions and Estimate Willingness to Pay in Two Lake Michigan Regions Knapp, L., et al. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Feasibility Appraisal of an Offshore Wind Farm Located in Greece Soursou, P. October 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Wind Electricity Generation in Scandinavia Tveten, A. July 2009 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Trade-offs between seascape and offshore wind farming values: An analysis of local opinions based on a cognitive belief framework Gee, K. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Need for Integrated Assessment of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Development Kannen, A., et al. January 2005 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Offshore Windfarms Collaborative Offshore Wind Research Into The Environment, Huddleston, J. November 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Organisms Bochert, R., Zettler, M. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Staying Afloat in Deepwaters Sunderasan, S. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy and Environmental Interactions: Baseline Assessments of Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles and Benthic Communities on the Oregon Shelf Henkel, S., Suryan, R., Lagerquist, B. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
What is the Source Level of Pile-Driving Noise in Water? Ainslie, M., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The MINOS Project: Ecological Assessments of Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Projects Kellermann, A., Eskildsen, K., Frank, B. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies Booth, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals Verfuss, U., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Is There a State-of-the-Art to Reduce Pile-Driving Noise? Bellmann, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Recent Developments in Ocean Energy and Offshore Wind: Financial Challenges and Environmental Misconceptions Esteban, M., Gasparatos, A., Doll, C. September 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Too loud to talk?: Do wind turbine-related sounds affect harbour seal communication? Lucke, K., et al. March 2008 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Exploitation of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental and Structural Safety Issues Related to Wind Energy Dai, K., Gao, K., Huang, Z. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Environmental implications of offshore energy Gill, A., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Compatibility of offshore energy installations with marine protected areas Thurstan, R., Yates, K., O'Leary, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine spatial planning Ehler, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Methods and utility of ecosystem service trade-off analysis for guiding marine planning of offshore energy Stevens, J., Lester, S., White, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning Greenhill, L. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Tracing regime shifts in the provision of coastal-marine cultural ecosystem services Gee, K., Burkhard, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine spatial planning and stakeholder collaboration Brooks, P., Jedele, T. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The future of marine spatial planning Bradshaw, C., Greenhill, L., Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Lighting, Noise
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Socio-economics, Navigation
Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Offshore Windfarms Severinsen, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Current situation of offshore development in Germany and environmentally sound expansion of offshore wind energy van Leusen, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Conservation features: Sensitive species and habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone Krause, J. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Rapid increase of benthic structural and functional diversity at the alpha ventus offshore test site Gutow, L., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on pelagic fish Krägefsky, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Fish
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on distribution patterns, behaviour and flight heights of seabirds Mendel, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Marine mammals and windfarms: Effects of alpha ventus on harbour porpoises Dähne, M., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Marine habitat modelling for harbour porpoises in the German Bight Skov, H., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Underwater construction and operational noise at alpha ventus Betke, K. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Noise mitigation systems and low-noise installation technologies Verfuß, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Cumulative impacts of offshore windfarms Damian, H., Merck, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Fencing in the bay? Place attachment, social representations of energy technologies and the protection of restorative environments Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Noise mitigation during pile-driving efficiently reduces disturbance of marine mammals Nehls, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Raptors
The First Large-Scale Offshore Aerial Survey Using a High-Resolution Camera System McGovern, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Birds
Site selection process for floating offshore wind farms in Madeira Islands Díaz, H., Fonseca, R., Soares, C. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment

Pages

Subscribe to Offshore Wind
Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Offshore Wind