Land-Based Wind

Harnessing wind energy in land environments.

Land-Based Wind

 

Land-based wind energy refers to a vast array of technologies used to convert wind that blows over land into electricity. The most common technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, but in some situations vertical axis turbines can be advantageous. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, wind directionality, access to the grid, accessibility, and potential environmental impacts. Most projects are required to conduct an environmental assessment (EA), or Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), to address environmental concerns specific to the location of the project.

 

The greatest environmental concern with land-based wind is collision risk for birds and bats. The construction and maintenance process can alter the nearfield environment by destroying important habitats or causing a barrier effect that separates habitats. There are also concerns about noise and visual impacts to both the environment and people. Effects of transmission lines are also a consideration as they produce an electromagnetic field that may be harmful to some organisms. While the removal of wind energy may also be a concern, research is looking at the potential impacts of energy removal, such as large-scale atmospheric changes.

Total Results: 980
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The determinants of wind energy growth in the United States: Drivers and barriers to state-level development Schumacher, K., Yang, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Out of sight of wind turbine-Reindeer response to wind farms in operation Skarin, A., Sandström, P, Alam, M. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Barbastelle bats in a wind farm: are they at risk? Apoznanski, G., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Guidance for Commercial Wind Energy Projects Minnesota Department of Natural Resources July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using residential proximity to wind turbines as an alternative exposure measure to investigate the association between wind turbines and human health Barry, R., Sulsky, S., Kreiger, N. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A radar study to relate the number of birds crossing an area to the number of fatal bird collisions at wind turbines Janine Aschwanden, Stefan Werner, Felix Liechti May 2018 Blog Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Landscape-Scale Wildlife Species Richness Metrics to Inform Wind and Solar Energy Facility Siting: An Arizona Case Study Thomas, K., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Predator attack rates and anti-predator behavior of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Southern California wind farms, USA Keehn, J., Feldman, C. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Estimating wind turbine fatalities using integrated detection trials Smallwood, K. Shawn, et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2017/2018 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Generic monitoring programme for monitoring watercourses in relation to onshore wind farm developments Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
A Socio-Technical Framework for Examining the Consequences of Deforestation: A Case Study of Wind Project Development in Northern Europe Enevoldsen, P. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
Scoping advice on information required in environmental impact assessment reports in relation to assessing risk to freshwater and diadromous fish and associated fisheries Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Fish, Fishing
Windpower and reindeer Strand, O., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed Wellig, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Nearfield Habitat
Collision sensitive niche profile of the worst affected bird-groups at wind turbine structures in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany Bose, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Male Greater Prairie-Chickens Adjust their Vocalizations in the Presence of Wind Turbine Noise Whalen, C., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 1 - October 15, 2017 Good, R., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (SMCDA) toolbox for Consensus-based Siting of Powerlines and Wind-power plants (ConSite) Hanssen, F., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
At the Heart of a Sustainable Energy Transition: The Public Acceptability of Energy Projects Perlaviciute, G., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Indirect Impacts of Wind Farms on Terrestrial Mammals: Insights from the Disturbance and Exclusion Effects on Wolves (Canis lupus) da Costa, G., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Living in Habitats Affected by Wind Turbines May Result in an Increase in Corticosterone Levels in Ground Dwelling Animals Łopucki, R., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Bird collision with power lines: estimating carcass persistence and detection associated with ground search surveys Borner, L., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Bats probe the aerosphere during landscape-guided altitudinal flights Voigt, C., Roeleke, M., Bumrungsri, S. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Increasing Evidence that Bats Actively Forage at Wind Turbines Hale, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Factors Associated with Bat Mortality at Wind Energy Facilities in the United States Thompson, M., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2017, and an analysis of potential impact after eight years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sourced Electric Production for the Province of Sinop/Turkey Alcan, Y. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Industrial Wind Turbine Post-Construction Bird and Bat Monitoring: A Policy Framework for Canada Parisé, J., Walker, T. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Industry in Portugal and Its Impacts on Wildlife: Special Focus on Spatial and Temporal Distribution on Bird and Bat Fatalities Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
CEDREN Final Report Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Fish
Greater Sage-Grouse: Overview and Effects of Wind Energy Development National Wind Coordinating Collaborative September 2017 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
No Substitute for Survival: Perturbation Analyses Using a Golden Eagle Population Model Reveal Limits to Managing for Take Tack, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Conservation Guidance for Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) Henning, B., Hinz Jr., L., Kath, J. August 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Bat Diversity, Activity, and Habitat Use in a Mixed Disturbance Landscape Hollen, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Bird Impact Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade Tejas, K., Prashanth, A. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Mammalian Mesocarnivore Visitation at Tortoise Burrows in a Wind Farm Agha, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Sea Turtles, Terrestrial Mammals
Match Between Soaring Modes of Black Kites and the Fine-Scale Distribution of Updrafts Santos, C., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The song of Skylarks Alauda arvensis indicates the deterioration of an acoustic environment resulting from wind farm start‐up Szymanski, P., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Bat Detection and Shutdown System for Utility-Scale Wind Turbines Sutter, C., Schumacher, S. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Energy, Economic and Environmental Impact of Wind Power in Malaysia Faizal, M., Chelvan, R., Amirah, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
Do terrestrial animals avoid areas close to turbines in functioning wind farms in agricultural landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Wind Power Project Development: Case Study in Latvia Antans, A. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Impact of Windmills and Power Lines on Birds: A Case Study at Porbandar Taluka, Gujarat-India Suthar, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Thirty Years of North American Wind Energy Acceptance Research: What have we Learned? Rand, J., Hoen, B. June 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
A Spatial Analysis for Ecologically Conscious Wind Farm Siting in the Pacific Northwest Moore, E. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Long Search Intervals Underestimate Bird and Bat Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines Smallwood, K. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Landscape van Grieken, M., Dower, B. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines Letcher, T. May 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Environmental and Structural Safety Issues Related to Wind Energy Dai, K., Gao, K., Huang, Z. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
North Lowther Energy Initiative Bat Survey Report Cooke, L. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XI Schwartz, S. May 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 1 Onshore: Potential Effects Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Reindeer habitat use in relation to two small wind farms, during preconstruction, construction, and operation Skarin, A., Alam, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Climate Change, Wind Energy, and Conservation: A Survey of Conflicting Issues Bauman, D. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities while Improving the Economic Efficiency of Operational Mitigation Martin, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Socio-economics
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Comparing Bird And Bat Data For New Wind Power Generation Smallwood, S., Neher, L. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Large-Scale, Multispecies Assessment of Avian Mortality Rates at Land-Based Wind Turbines in Northern Germany Grunkorn, T., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Introducing a New Avian Sensitivity Mapping Tool to Support the Siting of Wind Farms and Power Lines in the Middle East and Northeast Africa Allinson, T. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Landscape-Scale Effects of Single- and Multiple Small Wind Turbines on Bat Activity Minderman, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Siting and Designing Wind Farms in the Landscape - Version 3 Scottish Natural Heritage February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
A Spatial Explicit Agent Based Model Approach to Evaluate the Performance of Different Monitoring Options for Mortality Estimates in the Scope of Onshore Windfarm Impact Assessments Santos, M., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Bridge Between Oceans: Overland Migration of Marine Birds in a Wind Energy Corridor Lamb, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - Octoboer 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Wind Energy’s Impacts on Birds in South Africa: A Preliminary Review of the Results of Operational Monitoring at the First Wind Farms of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa Ralston-Paton, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Spatial Distribution of the European Hamster Łopucki, R., Perzanowski, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals

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