Static Device

Any part of the device that does not move significantly.

Static Device

 

Components of wind or marine renewable energy devices such as the foundation, stationary turbine blades, power cables, anchors, or mooring lines can potentially cause harm to animals through collision. However, the consequences of an animal colliding with a stationary device will almost certainly be small as compared to a collision with a moving blade. The likelihood of collisions with stationary devices is dependent on the bathymetry (in the ocean) or terrain (on land), where the devices are located in a waterbody or hillside, in relation to animal migratory corridors or passages, and during inclement weather (for wind turbines).  As commercial arrays are deployed, it is possible that the likelihood of collisions with stationary parts of devices will increase over that of single devices. The physical presence of one or many devices may cause animals to avoid the area, potentially resulting in loss of foraging, breeding, rearing, or resting habitats. Fish may be attracted to a device to feed on algae or to swim in an eddy, while bats may be attracted to a device to feed on insects that are attracted by the light, both of which may place them at higher risk for collision with dynamic portions of the device. Mooring lines that anchor floating devices to the seafloor could also confuse or entrap large marine animals like whales, causing panic and potential injury or increased predation.

 

Photo Credit: Pelamis

Total Results: 915
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Environmental aspects of designing multi-purpose offshore platforms in the scope of the FP7 TROPOS Project Lu, S., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact for Offshore Wind Farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Approach Guermont, C., et al. October 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Learning from the Past to Optimise Future Monitoring Programmes Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Environmental Impacts of Small Hydropower Plants: A Case Study of Borås Energi och Miljö's Hydropower Plants Steinmetz, M., Sundqvist, N. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Riverine Energy Removal, Static Device
Environmental impacts of tidal power schemes Wolf, J., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impacts over the Seabed and Benthic Communities of Underwater Cable Installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BIMEP) Bald, J., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device
Environmental Issues of Natural Temperature Differences Utilization Gauthier, M. August 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal, Static Device Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Epifauna Dynamics at an Offshore Foundation - Implications of Future Wind Power Farming in the North Sea Krone, R., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Distribution of Sedimentary Benthic Habitats and Species on the Eastern Pacific Shelf and Detecting Effects of Device Deployment Henkel, S., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Estimating Enhancement of Fish Production by Offshore Artificial Reefs: Uncertainty Exhibited by Divergent Scenarios Powers, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Estimating the Indirect Impact of Wind Farms on Breeding Bird Assemblages: A Case Study in the Central Apennines Battisti, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Estimating the Potential Mortality of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Due to Wind Energy Development on the Island of Crete (Greece) Xirouchakis, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Decommissioning Programme Low, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating Effects of Stressors - Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Anderson, R., Copping, A., Van Cleve, F. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Landscape Level Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M. December 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices, Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters Kramer, S., et al. May 2015 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Evaluation of a Passive Acoustic Monitoring Network for Harbor Porpoise in California Jacobson, E., Forney, K., Harvey, J. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Marine Mammals
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds: The Case Study of Lebanon Al Zohbi, G., Hendrick, P., Bouillard, P. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Evidence of Latitudinal Migration in Tri-colored Bats, Perimyotis subflavus Fraser, E., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Evidence of Negative Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Wildlife: A Review of Grouse Survival and Behaviour Hovick, T., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Evidence of the migratory bat, Pipistrellus nathusii, aggregating to the coastlines in the Northern Baltic Sea Ijas, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Evidence that Bats Perceive Wind Turbine Surfaces to be Water McAlexander, A. December 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Examination of the Effects of Disturbance of Birds with Reference to its Importance in Ecological Assessments Hockin, D., et al. December 1992 Journal Article Static Device Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Factors Influencing Bat Activity and Mortality at a Wind Farm in the Mediterranean Region Amorim, F., Rebelo, H., Rodrigues, L. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Video Monitoring Data of Biofouling May 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Female Agassizs Desert Tortoise Activity at a Wind Energy Facility in Southern California: The Influence of an El Nino Event Ennen, J., Meyer, K., Lovich, J. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Field Experiments on the Attraction of Pelagic Fish to Floating Objects Hunter, J., Mitchell, C. January 1968 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fish Aggregation Device (FAD) Research: Gaps in Current Knowledge and Future Directions for Ecological Studies Dempster, T., Taquet, M. March 2004 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Fish And Sessile Assemblages Associated With Wind-turbine Constructions In The Baltic Sea Andersson, M., Öhman, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Fish Assemblages Associated with Urban Structures and Natural Reefs in Sydney, Australia Clynick, B., Chapman, M., Underwood, A. April 2008 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Fish assemblages on mussel mounds surrounding seven oil platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel and Santa Maria Basin Love, M., Caselle, J., Snook, L. September 1999 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Fish Assemblages on Sunken Vessels and Natural Reefs in Southeast Florida, USA Arena, P., Jordan, L., Spieler, R. January 2007 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Fish Distributions in a Tidal Channel Indicate the Behavioural Impact of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation Fraser, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Fish
Fixing wind power's bat problem Kumagai, J. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Flatfish habitat use near North America's first offshore wind farm Wilber, D., Carey, D., Griffin, M. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Flight Height Distribution and Collision Risk of the Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus Marmoratus: Methodology and Preliminary Results Stumpf, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains Johnson, N., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Flow Modification in Tory Channel January 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Fly-and-Forage Strategy in the Bat Pipistrellus nathusii During Autumn Migration Suba, J., Petersons, G., Rydell, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
From Ground to Above Canopy - Bat Activity in Mature Forests is Driven by Vegetation Density and Height Muller, J., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Gathering the Perspectives and Experience from Test Sites and Device Developers for Environmental and Socio Economic Impact Assessment of Wave Energy Magagna, D., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-economics
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Getting it Right for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis): A Last Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. August 2014 Journal Article Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
GIS-based wind farm site selection using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA): Evaluating the case for New York State van Haaren, R., Fthenakis, V. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming Johnson, G., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Greater sage‐grouse male lek counts relative to a wind energy development LeBeau, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Habitat Use and Selection of Black Scoters in Southern New England and Siting of Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Loring, P., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dutch North Sea Scheidat, M., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Health Effects and Wind Turbines: A Review of the Literature Knopper, L., Ollson, C. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Hidden Markov Models for Estimating Animal Mortality from Anthropogenic Hazards Etterson, M. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: Relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables Heinänen, S., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Historical Challenges of Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions: How This May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Home Range and Resource Selection by GPS-Monitored Adult Golden Eagles in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion: Implications for Wind Power Development Watson, J., Duff, A., Davies, R. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Homing of Pelagic Fish to Fish Aggregation Devices (FADs): The Role of Sensory Cues Dempster, T., Kingsford, M. August 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds

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