Static Device

Any part of the device that does not move significantly.

Static Device

 

Components of wind or marine renewable energy devices such as the foundation, stationary turbine blades, power cables, anchors, or mooring lines can potentially cause harm to animals through collision. However, the consequences of an animal colliding with a stationary device will almost certainly be small as compared to a collision with a moving blade. The likelihood of collisions with stationary devices is dependent on the bathymetry (in the ocean) or terrain (on land), where the devices are located in a waterbody or hillside, in relation to animal migratory corridors or passages, and during inclement weather (for wind turbines).  As commercial arrays are deployed, it is possible that the likelihood of collisions with stationary parts of devices will increase over that of single devices. The physical presence of one or many devices may cause animals to avoid the area, potentially resulting in loss of foraging, breeding, rearing, or resting habitats. Fish may be attracted to a device to feed on algae or to swim in an eddy, while bats may be attracted to a device to feed on insects that are attracted by the light, both of which may place them at higher risk for collision with dynamic portions of the device. Mooring lines that anchor floating devices to the seafloor could also confuse or entrap large marine animals like whales, causing panic and potential injury or increased predation.

 

Photo Credit: Pelamis

Total Results: 915
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
Out of Sight of Wind Turbine-Reindeer Response to Wind Farms in Operation Skarin, A., Sandström, P, Alam, M. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article EMF, Static Device
Perceived Concerns and Possible Management Strategies for Governing 'Wind-Farm Mariculture Integration' Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: A calculus method for synthesizing choice experiments studies Wen, C., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Echolocation activity of migratory bats at a wind energy facility: testing the feeding-attraction hypothesis to explain fatalities Reimer, J., Baerwald, E., Barlay, R. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Spatial Ecology of Female Mule Deer in an Area Proposed for Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Interpreting failure to reject the null hypothesis of displacement from wind turbines in three species of grassland birds: Response to Johnson (2016) Hale, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
Local Effects of Blue Mussels Around Turbine Foundations in an Ecosystem Model of Nysted Off-Shore Wind Farm, Denmark Maar, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Greater sage‐grouse male lek counts relative to a wind energy development LeBeau, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Marine Fish Assemblages Associated with Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs): Effects of Fish Removal, FAD Size, Fouling Communities, and Prior Recruits Nelson, P. June 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Wind Energy Development: Methods for Assessing Risks to Birds and Bats Pre-Construction Katzner, T., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
The impact of on-shore and off-shore wind turbine farms on property prices Jensen, C., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Scavenger removal of bird carcasses at simulated wind turbines: Does carcass type matter? DeVault, T., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Impacts of wind power infrastructure development on semi-domesticated reindeer and reindeer husbandry Skarin, A., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Are Southern California Oil and Gas Platforms Essential Fish Habitat Helvey, M. January 2002 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reef Effect in Relation to Offshore Renewable Energy Conversion: State of the Art Langhamer, O. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Artificial Marine Structures Facilitate the Spread of a Non-Indigenous Green Algae Bulleri, F., Airoldi, L. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reef Effect and Fouling Impacts on Offshore Wave Power Foundations and Buoys - A Pilot Study Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
MUSSEL CULTIVATION AS A CO-USE IN OFFSHORE WIND FARMS: POTENTIAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY Buck, B., Ebeling, M., Michler-Cieluch, T. December 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Characterizing the first wave of fish and invertebrate colonization on a new offshore petroleum platform Todd, V., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power Bicknell, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Over or under? Autonomous sensor fish reveals why overshot weirs may be safer than undershot weirs for fish passage Pflugrath, B., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Static Device Fish
Effects of ocean sprawl on ecological connectivity: impacts and solutions Bishop, M., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Do Black-naped Hares Lepus nigricollis (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae) have synanthropic association with wind farms? Anoop, V., Arun, P., Jaypal, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis occurrence in offshore wind energy areas near Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA Leiter, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Offshore renewable energy: ecological implications of generating electricity in the costal zone Gill, A. August 2005 Journal Article Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Marine artificial structures as amplifiers of Aurelia aurita s.l. blooms: a case study of a newly installed floating pier Makabe, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device
Environmental impacts of tidal power schemes Wolf, J., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic biodiversity on old platforms, young wind farms, and rocky reefs Coolen, J., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
A General Theory on Fish Aggregation to Floating Objects: An Alternative to the Meeting Point Hypothesis Castro, J., Santiago, J., Santana-Ortega, A. June 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping Stelzenmüller, V., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Fishing
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Density dependence and marine bird populations: are wind farm assessments precautionary? Horswill, C., O'Brien, S., Robinson, R. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Ecosystem Based Modeling and Indication of Ecological Integrity in the German North Sea - Case Study Offshore Wind Parks Burkhard, B., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Evidence of the migratory bat, Pipistrellus nathusii, aggregating to the coastlines in the Northern Baltic Sea Ijas, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Effects Of Wave Energy Converters On The Surrounding Soft-bottom Macrofauna (west Coast Of Sweden) Langhamer, O. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Reproductive output of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in relation to wind turbine proximity Fernandez-Bellon, D., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of an Offshore Oil Platform on the Distribution and Abundance of Commercially Important Crab Species Page, H., et al. August 1999 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of High-Relief Structures on Cold Temperate Fish Assemblages: A field Experiment Wilhelmsson, D., Yahya, S., Öhman, M. August 2006 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure Mahoney, A., Chalfoun, A. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Landscape design: Integrating ecological, social, and economic considerations into conservation planning Bartuszevige, A., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: An application in South Evia, Greece Mirasgedis, S., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Static Device Birds
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
The association of windmills with conservation of pollinating insects and wild plants in homogeneous farmland of western Poland Pustkowiak, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Characteristics of Avian Mortality at a North Florida Television Tower: A 29-Year Study Engstrom, R., Crawford, R. January 2001 Journal Article Static Device Birds, Passerines
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Colonisation of Fish and Crabs of Wave Energy Foundations and the Effects of Manufactured Holes - A Field Experiment Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Consistency Conflicts and Federalism Choice: Marine Spatial Planning Beyond the States' Territorial Seas Burger, M. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Correlations Between Benthic Habitats and Demersal Fish Assemblages - A Case Study on the Dogger Bank (North Sea) Sell, A., Kröncke, I. July 2013 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
The Habitat-Creation Potential of Offshore Wind Farms Elliott, M., Wilson, J. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Understanding Bird Collisions With Man-made Objects: A Sensory Ecology Approach Martin, G. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Visual Censuses Around Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs): A New Approach For Assessing The Diversity Of Fish In Open-ocean Waters Gaertner, J., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation

Pages

Subscribe to Static Device
Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Static Device