Static Device

Any part of the device that does not move significantly.

Static Device

 

Components of wind or marine renewable energy devices such as the foundation, stationary turbine blades, power cables, anchors, or mooring lines can potentially cause harm to animals through collision. However, the consequences of an animal colliding with a stationary device will almost certainly be small as compared to a collision with a moving blade. The likelihood of collisions with stationary devices is dependent on the bathymetry (in the ocean) or terrain (on land), where the devices are located in a waterbody or hillside, in relation to animal migratory corridors or passages, and during inclement weather (for wind turbines).  As commercial arrays are deployed, it is possible that the likelihood of collisions with stationary parts of devices will increase over that of single devices. The physical presence of one or many devices may cause animals to avoid the area, potentially resulting in loss of foraging, breeding, rearing, or resting habitats. Fish may be attracted to a device to feed on algae or to swim in an eddy, while bats may be attracted to a device to feed on insects that are attracted by the light, both of which may place them at higher risk for collision with dynamic portions of the device. Mooring lines that anchor floating devices to the seafloor could also confuse or entrap large marine animals like whales, causing panic and potential injury or increased predation.

 

Photo Credit: Pelamis

Total Results: 906
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Population Development and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Relation to the Development of Wind Energy Use in Germany Rasran, L., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Populationsdynamik von kommerziell genutzten Fischarten in (durch Offshore- Windkraftanlagen) veränderter Ökosystemstruktur Diembeck, D. January 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Potential effects of deep seawater discharge by an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant on the marine microorganisms in oligotrophic waters Giraud, M., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Potential Environmental Effects of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Sound and Sea Technologies April 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Fish
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Potential impacts of artificial reef development on sea turtle conservation in Florida Barnette, M. January 2017 Report Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential Impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages Kuhnz, L., et al. December 2015 Report Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impacts of Wind Farm Energy Development on Upland Game Birds: Questions and Concerns Brennan, L., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Potential Impacts of Wind Farms on Migratory Birds Crossing Spain Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Potential OTEC Impacts in the Hawaiian Marine Environment Parke, M. January 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Prairie Winds: Migrating Bats & Wind Energy in Canada Baerwald, E. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Pre-Construction Breeding Bird Surveys Number Three Wind Energy Project Lewis County, New York Bay, K., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Predator attack rates and anti-predator behavior of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Southern California wind farms, USA Keehn, J., Feldman, C. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects Belaire, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Predicting Migratory Corridors of White Storks, Ciconia ciconia, to Enhance Sustainable Wind Energy Planning: A Data-Driven Agent-Based Model Oloo, F., Safi, K., Aryal, J. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Predicting Spatial Patterns of Eagle Migration using a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model: A Case Study Associated with a Mountain-Ridge Wind Development Ainslie, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Predicting the trends of vertebrate species richness as a response to wind farms installation in mountain ecosystems of northwest Portugal Santos, M., et al. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Preliminary Flora and Fauna Assessment - Penshurst Wind Farm McMahon, A., Marr, R. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Preliminary Study of the Feeding Habits of Pelagic Fish around Hawaiian Fish Aggregation Devices or can Fish Aggregation Devices Enhance Local Fisheries Productivity? Brock, R. July 1985 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Preliminary survey of avifauna around wind farm of Jangi region, Kutch District, Gujarat, India Ali, A., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development Beston, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Problematic Wildlife: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach Angelici, F. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Problems and Benefits Associated with the Development of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VII Schwartz, S. June 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting X Schwartz, S. April 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proposed Torr Head Tidal Scheme Environmental Scoping Report THETIS Energy September 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Protocol to Develop an Environmental Impact Study of Wave Energy Converters Bald, J., et al. May 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
Reindeer and Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Response Towards Human Activities Reimers, E., Colman, J. January 2006 Journal Article Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Reindeer and windpower Skarin, A., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Reindeer habitat use in relation to two small wind farms, during preconstruction, construction, and operation Skarin, A., Alam, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Renewable Energy From the Ocean: A Guide to OTEC Avery, W., Wu, C. January 1994 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2014 Rodrigues, L. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2015 Rodrigues, L. March 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2016 Rodrigues, L. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2017 Rodrigues, L. March 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2018 Rodrigues, L. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reproductive output of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in relation to wind turbine proximity Fernandez-Bellon, D., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure Mahoney, A., Chalfoun, A. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
Research and Developments on Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Wang, C., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Research and Guidance on Restoration and Decommissioning of Onshore Wind Farms Welstead, J., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Residence of Fish in the Vicinity of a Decommissioned Oil Platform in the North Sea Jørgensen, T., Løkkeborg, S., Soldal, A. January 2002 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Response of migrating raptors to an increasing number of wind farms Cabrera-Cruz, S., Villegas-Patraca, R. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Response of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus) to Wind-power Development Walter, W., Leslie, D., Jenks, J. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Response to Huso and Erickson's Comments on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Smallwood, K., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Results and Analysis of Eagle Studies from the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms 2002-2012 Hull, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Riding the waves: use of the Pelamis device by seabirds Jackson, A. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave Static Device Seabirds
Rigs-to-Reefs in the North Sea: Hydroacoustic Quantification of Fish Associated with a 'Semi-Cold' Platform Soldal, A., et al. January 2002 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

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