Static Device

Any part of the device that does not move significantly.

Static Device

 

Components of wind or marine renewable energy devices such as the foundation, stationary turbine blades, power cables, anchors, or mooring lines can potentially cause harm to animals through collision. However, the consequences of an animal colliding with a stationary device will almost certainly be small as compared to a collision with a moving blade. The likelihood of collisions with stationary devices is dependent on the bathymetry (in the ocean) or terrain (on land), where the devices are located in a waterbody or hillside, in relation to animal migratory corridors or passages, and during inclement weather (for wind turbines).  As commercial arrays are deployed, it is possible that the likelihood of collisions with stationary parts of devices will increase over that of single devices. The physical presence of one or many devices may cause animals to avoid the area, potentially resulting in loss of foraging, breeding, rearing, or resting habitats. Fish may be attracted to a device to feed on algae or to swim in an eddy, while bats may be attracted to a device to feed on insects that are attracted by the light, both of which may place them at higher risk for collision with dynamic portions of the device. Mooring lines that anchor floating devices to the seafloor could also confuse or entrap large marine animals like whales, causing panic and potential injury or increased predation.

 

Photo Credit: Pelamis

Total Results: 915
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A General Theory on Fish Aggregation to Floating Objects: An Alternative to the Meeting Point Hypothesis Castro, J., Santiago, J., Santana-Ortega, A. June 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Are Southern California Oil and Gas Platforms Essential Fish Habitat Helvey, M. January 2002 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reef Effect in Relation to Offshore Renewable Energy Conversion: State of the Art Langhamer, O. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Marine Structures Facilitate the Spread of a Non-Indigenous Green Algae Bulleri, F., Airoldi, L. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reef Effect and Fouling Impacts on Offshore Wave Power Foundations and Buoys - A Pilot Study Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Static Device Birds
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Characteristics of Avian Mortality at a North Florida Television Tower: A 29-Year Study Engstrom, R., Crawford, R. January 2001 Journal Article Static Device Birds, Passerines
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Colonisation of Fish and Crabs of Wave Energy Foundations and the Effects of Manufactured Holes - A Field Experiment Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Consistency Conflicts and Federalism Choice: Marine Spatial Planning Beyond the States' Territorial Seas Burger, M. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Correlations Between Benthic Habitats and Demersal Fish Assemblages - A Case Study on the Dogger Bank (North Sea) Sell, A., Kröncke, I. July 2013 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecosystem Based Modeling and Indication of Ecological Integrity in the German North Sea - Case Study Offshore Wind Parks Burkhard, B., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Effects Of Wave Energy Converters On The Surrounding Soft-bottom Macrofauna (west Coast Of Sweden) Langhamer, O. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of an Offshore Oil Platform on the Distribution and Abundance of Commercially Important Crab Species Page, H., et al. August 1999 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of High-Relief Structures on Cold Temperate Fish Assemblages: A field Experiment Wilhelmsson, D., Yahya, S., Öhman, M. August 2006 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Epifauna Dynamics at an Offshore Foundation - Implications of Future Wind Power Farming in the North Sea Krone, R., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Examination of the Effects of Disturbance of Birds with Reference to its Importance in Ecological Assessments Hockin, D., et al. December 1992 Journal Article Static Device Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Field Experiments on the Attraction of Pelagic Fish to Floating Objects Hunter, J., Mitchell, C. January 1968 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Fish Aggregation Device (FAD) Research: Gaps in Current Knowledge and Future Directions for Ecological Studies Dempster, T., Taquet, M. March 2004 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Fish And Sessile Assemblages Associated With Wind-turbine Constructions In The Baltic Sea Andersson, M., Öhman, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dutch North Sea Scheidat, M., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Homing of Pelagic Fish to Fish Aggregation Devices (FADs): The Role of Sensory Cues Dempster, T., Kingsford, M. August 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Hydroacoustic Remote Sensing for Artificial Habitats Thorne, R. September 1994 Journal Article Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Interactive Marine Spatial Planning: Siting Tidal Energy Arrays around the Mull of Kintyre Alexander, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Local Effects of Blue Mussels Around Turbine Foundations in an Ecosystem Model of Nysted Off-Shore Wind Farm, Denmark Maar, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Fish Assemblages Associated with Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs): Effects of Fish Removal, FAD Size, Fouling Communities, and Prior Recruits Nelson, P. June 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms as Productive Sites or Ecological Traps for Gadoid Fishes? - Impact on Growth, Condition Index and Diet Composition Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Offshore Windmill Farms: Threats to or Possibilities for the Marine Environment Petersen, J., Malm, T. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
Perceived Concerns and Possible Management Strategies for Governing 'Wind-Farm Mariculture Integration' Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Fish
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Residence of Fish in the Vicinity of a Decommissioned Oil Platform in the North Sea Jørgensen, T., Løkkeborg, S., Soldal, A. January 2002 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Seasonal Distribution Of Harbour Porpoises And Possible Interference Of Offshore Wind Farms In The German North Sea Gilles, A., Scheidat, M., Siebert, U. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Shallow Moving Structures Promote Marine Invader Dominance Dafforn, K., Johnston, E., Glasby, T. January 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Ecosystem
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Simulation-Based Investigations of Fishery Changes as Affected by the Scale and Design of Artificial Habitats Sayer, M., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Assemblage Structure of Fish Associated to Fish Aggregation Devices in the Western Mediterranean Addis, P., et al. May 2006 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Study on the Marine Growth Effect on the Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines Shi, W., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Temporal Variability of Pelagic Fish Assemblages around Fish Aggregation Devices: Biological and Physical Influences Dempster, T. May 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
The Efficacy of Midwater Artificial Structures for Attracting Pelagic Sport Fish Wickham, D., Watson, J. Jr., Ogren, L. January 1973 Journal Article Static Device Fish
The Environmental Interactions of Tidal and Wave Energy Generation Devices Frid, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The Value of a Net-Cage as a Fish Aggregating Device in Southern California Oakes, C., Pondella, D. January 2009 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
The Habitat-Creation Potential of Offshore Wind Farms Elliott, M., Wilson, J. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding Bird Collisions With Man-made Objects: A Sensory Ecology Approach Martin, G. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Visual Censuses Around Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs): A New Approach For Assessing The Diversity Of Fish In Open-ocean Waters Gaertner, J., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Offshore Wave Energy Generation Devices: Impacts on Ocean Bio-Environment Lin, L., Yu, H. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
A Geographical-Based Multi-Criteria Approach for Marine Energy Farm Planning Maslov, N., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Farfield Environment
A Marine Spatial Planning Approach to Select Suitable Areas for Installing Wave Energy Converters on the Basque Continental Shelf (Bay of Biscay) Galparsoro, I., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Spatial Planning for Sustainable Marine Renewable Energy Developments in Scotland Davies, I., Watret, R., Gubbins, M. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Socio-economics
Flight Height Distribution and Collision Risk of the Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus Marmoratus: Methodology and Preliminary Results Stumpf, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Energy Profiling of Demersal Fish: A Case-Study in Wind Farm Artificial Reefs De Troch, M., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium): Significant Effect on Breeding Tern Colony Due to Collisions Everaert, J., Stienen, E. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat

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