Noise

Sound generated during the construction or operation of a device.

Noise

 

During the construction of wind energy or marine renewable energy devices, substantial noise levels can be produced by vessel or vehicle traffic and installation activities (e.g., pile driving, cable burial). Operation of these devices may additionally produce low levels of noise from the rotation of turbine blades, movement of floating devices on the surface, or strumming of mooring lines and cables. Measures to reduce noise impacts in the marine environment include the use of bubble curtains during pile driving and careful siting and timing of construction activities to avoid species’ critical migration routes and times.

 

Sound propagates farther and faster in water than in air, which can result in greater consequences for the marine environment. Coupled with the many other sources of anthropogenic noise in the marine environment (e.g., ships, seismic studies), the noise from offshore wind and marine renewable energy devices may impact many marine species. Noise may interfere with marine organisms’ communication, navigation, detection of prey, and ability to interact with their environment, as well as causing attraction to or avoidance of devices. Additionally, some marine organisms may be physically harmed from excessive noise exposure (e.g., tissue and nerve damage).

 

For more information, check out the Underwater Noise Short Science Summary produced by OES Environmental.

Total Results: 682
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Case Study on the Effects of Underwater Noise During the Construction of Large Offshore Wind Farms Mason, T., Barham, R., Nedwell, J. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A Comparison of Underwater Noise at Two High Energy Sites Willis, M., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
A Digital Acoustic Recording Tag for Measuring the Response of Wild Marine Mammals to Sound Johnson, M., Tyack, P. January 2003 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A New Context-Based Approach to Assess Marine Mammal Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Sounds Ellison, W., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper Noise Invertebrates
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A Validation of the dBht as a Measure of the Behavioural and Auditory Effects of Underwater Noise Nedwell, J., et al. October 2007 Report Marine Energy (General) Noise
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
A Vessel Noise Budget for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA) Bassett, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Noise Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace: Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories Copping, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General) Chemicals, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Human Dimensions
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources Wenz, G. May 1962 Journal Article Noise
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Human Dimensions
Assessment of the Potential for Acoustic Deterrents to Mitigate the Impact on Marine Mammals of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Gordon, J., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic Field Calibration for Noise Prediction: the CALCOM'10 Data Set Martins, N., Felisberto, P., Jesus, S. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy (General) Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis Ren, H., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessment Method for Sound Radiated by Cyclically Operating Wells Turbines Starzmann, R., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Basic Audiometric Functions in Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) at Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain Lucke, K., Finneran, J., Houser, D. March 2013 Report Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Averaging Underwater Noise Levels for Environmental Assessment of Shipping Merchant, N., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Noise Nearfield Habitat
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Birds
Avoidance Responses of Loggerhead Turtles, Caretta caretta, to Low Frequency Sound O'Hara, J., Wilcox, J. June 1990 Journal Article Noise Reptiles
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Behavioral Responses of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans to Controlled Exposures of Simulated Sonar and Other Sounds Southall, B., et al. October 2009 Presentation Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Broadband Acoustic Environment at a Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Xu, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away Risch, D., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Characteristics of Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Hatch, L., et al. November 2008 Journal Article Noise Human Dimensions, Navigation
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Bats, Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Common Sole Larvae Survive High Levels of Pile-Driving Sound in Controlled Exposure Experiments Bolle, L., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Context-Dependent Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Individual and Social Behaviour in a Cooperatively Breeding Fish Bruintjes, R., Radford, A. June 2013 Journal Article Noise Fish
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Design and Implementation of an Underwater Sound Recording Device Martinez, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Noise Fish
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Do Marine Mammals Experience Stress Related to Anthropogenic Noise? Wright, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of the Sound Generated by an Acoustic Harassment Device on the Relative Abundance and Distribution of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia Olesiuk, P., et al. October 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Effects Of Ambient And Boat Noise On Hearing And Communication In Three Fish Species Living In A Marine Protected Area (Miramare, Italy) Codarin, A., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Noise Fish
Effects Of Tidal Turbine Noise On Fish Hearing And Tissues Halvorsen, M., Carlson, T., Copping, A. September 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Noise on Fish, Fisheries, and Invertebrates in the U.S. Atlantic and Arctic from Energy Industry Sound-Generating Activities Hawkins, A., Popper, A. February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General) Noise Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of Seismic Shooting on Catch and Catch-Availability of Cod and Haddock Engas, A., et al. August 1993 Report Noise Fish
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Environmental Noise and Decision Making Possible Implications of Increases in Anthropogenic Noise for Information Processing in Marine Mammals Bateson, M. January 2007 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Estimates of Water Turbine Noise Levels Guerra, J. May 2011 Thesis Marine Energy (General) Noise
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Final Results for Representative MHK Turbine Acoustic Predictions under Operating Conditions Johnson, E., Barone, M. March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General) Noise
Fish in a Tidally Dynamic Region in Maine: Hydroacoustic Assessments in Relation to Tidal Power Development Viehman, H. May 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Hearing in Fish and their Reactions to Sounds from Offshore Wind Farms Wahlberg, M., Westerberg, H. March 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Hearing in the Giant Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas Ridgway, S., et al. August 1969 Journal Article Noise Reptiles
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter Noise Marine Mammals
Implications for Marine Mammals of Large-Scale Changes in the Marine Acoustic Environment Tyack, P. June 2008 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Influence of Blade Solidity on Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines Jonson, M., et al. August 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General) Noise
Influence of Wind-Produced Noise on Orientation in the Sole (Solea solea) Lagardère, J., et al. January 1994 Journal Article Noise Fish
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Is a German Harbour Porpoise Much More Sensitive than a British One? Comparative Analyses of Mandatory Measures for the Protection of Harbour Porposes (Phocoena phocoena) During Offshore Wind Farm Ramming in Germany, Denmark and the UK Luedeke, J. December 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Lethal and Physical Injury of Marine Mammals and Requirements for Passive Acoustic Monitoring Parvin, S., Nedwell, J., Harland, E. February 2007 Report Marine Energy (General) Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

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