Noise

Sounds created during construction and operation of device.

Noise

 

Sound is produced by wind and marine renewable energy devices and may result in behavioral changes and physical harm for certain organisms. Behavioral changes include avoidance of or attraction to noise sources and interference with communication, navigation, and detection of prey. Physical harm resulting from excessive noise exposure can include reduction in hearing ability, tissue damage, and nerve damage. Noise generated during construction can be produced by vessel or vehicle traffic as well as device installation activities such as pile driving. Measures to reduce noise impacts include bubble shields for underwater pile driving and avoidance of critical migration times for marine and terrestrial organisms that may be vulnerable to noise impacts. Operation may produce low levels of noise from the rotation of turbine blades, the movement of floating devices, strumming of mooring lines and cables, and movement of water or air around the device. Noise is of greatest concern in ocean environments, where sound propagates great distances through water. Coupled with other anthropogenic sounds in the ocean – e.g. shipping and other industrial practices, these sounds can pose a risk to the health of marine animal populations. Potential for impact is best contextualized when considering that some sounds are not audible for certain organisms.

 

Photo Credit: "New Technology Reduces Noise" by OffshoreWind.biz

Total Results: 660
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The Theory of Sound Rayleigh, J. April 1877 Book Noise
Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources Wenz, G. May 1962 Journal Article Noise
Hearing in the Giant Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas Ridgway, S., et al. August 1969 Journal Article Noise Reptiles
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Measured and Calculated Characteristics of Wind Turbine Noise Greene, G. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Noise Generation of Upwind Rotor Wind Turbine Generators Spencer, R. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
GE MOD-1 Noise Study Wells, R. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Final Environmental Impact Statement National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration July 1981 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Noise Measurements for Single and Multiple Operation of 50-kW Wind Turbine Generators Hubbard, H., Shepherd, K. February 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation Kelley, N., Hemphill, R., McKenna, H. May 1982 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Method for Predicting Impulsive Noise Generated by Wind Turbine Rotors Viterna, L. May 1982 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Waterborne Noise Due to Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plants Janota, C., Thompson, D. July 1983 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Acoustic Noise Associated with the MOD-1 Wind Turbine: Its Source, Impact, and Control Kelley, N., et al. February 1985 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Potential Impacts from OTEC-Generated Underwater Sounds Rucker, J., Friedl, W. November 1985 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise
Prediction of Far Field Noise from Wind Energy Farms Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
Avoidance Responses of Loggerhead Turtles, Caretta caretta, to Low Frequency Sound O'Hara, J., Wilcox, J. June 1990 Journal Article Noise Reptiles
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Effects of Seismic Shooting on Catch and Catch-Availability of Cod and Haddock Engas, A., et al. August 1993 Report Noise Fish
Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs Ocean Studies Board January 1994 Book Chapter Noise Marine Mammals
Influence of Wind-Produced Noise on Orientation in the Sole (Solea solea) Lagardère, J., et al. January 1994 Journal Article Noise Fish
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Influences of Man-Made Noise and Other Human Actions on Cetacean Behaviour Richardson, W., Würsig, B. January 1997 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Sound Speed and Void Fraction Profiles in the Sea Surface Bubble Layer Buckingham, M. July 1997 Journal Article Noise
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Escape Responses of Hauled out Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida) to Aircraft Disturbance Born, E., et al. February 1999 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling Würsig, B., Greene, C., Jefferson, T. February 2000 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Masking in Three Pinnipeds: Underwater, Low-Frequency Critical Ratios Southall, B., Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. June 2000 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Noise Measurements and Analysis: Offshore Pile-Driving Underwater and Above-Water Ødegaard and Danneskiold-Samsøe October 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Detection of Infrasound in Fish and Behavioral Responses to Intense Infrasound in Juvenile Salmonids and European Silver Eels: A Minireview Sand, O., et al. January 2001 Conference Paper Noise Fish
Effects of underwater noise on auditory sensitivity of a cyprinid fish Scholik, A., Yan, H. February 2001 Journal Article Noise Fish
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Socio-economics
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general Noise Birds
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Evaluation of Wind Turbine Noise DeGagne, D., Lewis, A., May, C. September 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Effect of the Sound Generated by an Acoustic Harassment Device on the Relative Abundance and Distribution of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia Olesiuk, P., et al. October 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
The Effect of Acoustic Harassment Devices on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Bay of Fundy, Canada Johnston, D. November 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
High Intensity Anthropogenic Sound Damages Fish Ears McCauley, R., Fewtrell, J., Popper, A. January 2003 Journal Article Noise Fish
A Digital Acoustic Recording Tag for Measuring the Response of Wild Marine Mammals to Sound Johnson, M., Tyack, P. January 2003 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Measurement of Underwater Noise During Piling at the Red Funnel Terminal, Southampton, and Observation of its Affect on Caged Fish Nedwell, J., et al. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Anthropogenic Sound: Effects on the Behavior and Physiology of Fishes Popper, A., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Noise Fish
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Fish and Marine Mammal Audiograms: A summary of available information Nedwell, J., et al. September 2004 Report Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper Noise Benthic Invertebrates
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects National Research Council January 2005 Book Noise Marine Mammals
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter Noise Marine Mammals
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Some Examples of Marine Mammal 'Discomfort Thresholds' in Relation to Man-Made Noise Verboom, W., Kastelein, R. January 2005 Report Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Hearing in Fish and their Reactions to Sounds from Offshore Wind Farms Wahlberg, M., Westerberg, H. March 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Influence of Underwater Data Transmission Sounds on the Displacement Behaviour of Captive Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. April 2005 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Offshore renewable energy: ecological implications of generating electricity in the costal zone Gill, A. August 2005 Journal Article Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Mitigating, Monitoring and Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Barlow, J., Gisiner, R. January 2006 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Environmental Noise Assessment of Wind Farms Lightstone, A. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Wind Turbine Noise - An Overview Bastasch, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
The MINOS Project: Ecological Assessments of Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Projects Kellermann, A., Eskildsen, K., Frank, B. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Understanding the Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Cox, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Recent Developments in Environmental Assessment Methods for Wind Turbine Noise Howe, B., McCabe, N. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Sound Levels Associated with Pile Driving at the Cape Disappointment Boat Launch Facility, Wave Barrier Project Laughlin, J. March 2006 Report Noise
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Ship noise and cortisol secretion in European freshwater fishes Wysocki, L., Dittami, J., Ladich, F. April 2006 Journal Article Noise Fish
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
Long-range Effects of Airgun Noise on Marine Mammals: Responses as a Function of Received Sound Level and Distance Bain, D., Williams, R. May 2006 Report Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Farm Noise Assessment in Australia and Model Comparison Tickell, C. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Acoustic and Geophysical Measurement of Infrasound from Wind Farm Turbines Hepburn, H. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment

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