Short Science Summary: Electromagnetic Fields

 

As marine renewable energy arrays are developed and more power cables are installed in the marine environment, there is concern that the Electromagnetic Field (EMF) signatures emitted from the power cables, moving parts of devices, and underwater substations or transformers may affect marine organisms that use the Earth’s natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. This summary represents a general overview of the research, produced by Annex IV under Ocean Energy Systems. The table below contains the literature relevant to EMF and marine renewable energy and will continue to be updated as new literature is added to Tethys.

 

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Sources of Information on EMF:

Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Assessment of Potential Impact of Electromagnetic Fields from Undersea Cable on Migratory Fish Behavior Kavet, R., et al. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Effects of EMF Emissions from Undersea Electric Cables on Coral Reef Fishes Jermain, R. July 2016 Thesis N/A EMF Fish
Assessment of Electromagnetic Field Emissions from Subsea Cables Dhanak, M., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general EMF N/A
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements Kavet, R., Wyman, M., Klimley, A. February 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Current Ability to Assess Impacts of Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies on Marine Fishes in Hawaii Claisse, J., et al. September 2015 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Characterization of EMF Emissions from Submarine Cables and Monitoring for Potential Responses of Marine Species Dhanak, M., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper N/A EMF N/A
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Thomsen, F., et al. September 2015 Report Marine Energy general EMF N/A
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Behavior of Largemouth Bass and Pallid Sturgeon in an Experimental Pond Setting Bevelhimer, M., Cada, G., Scherelis, C. September 2015 Report N/A EMF Fish
MHK and Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Gill, A. May 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general EMF N/A
Identical Response of Caged Rock Crabs (Genera Metacarcinus and Cancer) to Energized and Unenergized Undersea Power Cables in Southern California, USA Love, M., et al. April 2015 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF N/A
Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Elasmobranch and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables King, J., et al. March 2015 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting and Magnetic Navigation in the Natal Homing of Sea Turtles Brothers, J., Lohmann, K February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF Sea Turtles
Using Medaka Embryos as a Model System to Study Biological Effects of the Electromagnetic Fields on Development and Behavior Lee, W., Yang, K. October 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Rearing in a Distorted Magnetic Field Disrupts the 'Map Sense' of Juvenile Steelhead Trout Putman, N., Meinke, A., Noakes, D. May 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
An Inherited Magnetic Map Guides Ocean Navigation in Juvenile Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Marine Renewable Energy, Electromagnetic (EM) Fields and EM-Sensitive Animals Gill, A., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general EMF N/A
D4.7 Best Practice Report on Environmental Monitoring and New Study Techniques Norris, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device N/A
Elasmobranch Cognitive Ability: Using Electroreceptive Foraging Behaviour to Demonstrate Learning, Habituation and Memory in a Benthic Shark Kimber, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewables Thomsen, F. December 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent Huveneers, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates - FY2012 Progress Report Woodruff, D., et al. May 2013 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Behavioral Responses of Representative Freshwater Fish Species to Electromagnetic Fields Bevelhimer, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Bioelectric Fields of Marine Organisms: Voltage and Frequency Contributions to Detectability by Electroreceptive Predators Bedore, C., Kajiura, S. April 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
EPRI Workshop on EMF and Aquatic Life Electric Power Research Institute April 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general EMF Nearfield Habitat
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting as a Homing Mechanism in Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Partnership for Research In Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) Zhang, J., et al. January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Will Ocean Energy Harm Marine Ecosystems? Hammar, L. January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Conceptual Models of Potential Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Impacts on Biological Resources Grippo, M., Hlohowskyj, I. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Potential Interactions between Diadromous Fishes of U.K. Conservation Importance and the Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments Gill, A., Bartlett, M., Thomsen, F. July 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF, Noise Fish
Offshore Wave Energy Generation Devices: Impacts on Ocean Bio-Environment Lin, L., Yu, H. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Magnetic Map of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles Lohmann, K., Putman, N., Lohmann, C. April 2012 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Simulating Transoceanic Migrations of Young Loggerhead Sea Turtles: Merging Magnetic Navigation Behavior with an Ocean Circulation Model Putman, N., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Environmental Impact Assessment of the Danish Wave Energy Center Margheritini, L., Azzellino, A. January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Ecology of Fishes in a High-Latitude, Turbid River with Implications for the Impacts of Hydrokinetic Devices Seitz, A., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal Fish
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Effects on Freshwater Organisms of Magnetic Fields Associated with Hydrokinetic Turbines Cada, G., et al. July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of EMFs from Underwater Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and Other Marine Species Tricas, T., Gill, A. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects of EMFs from Undersea Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and other Marine Species Normandeau Associates Inc, et al. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Longitude Perception and Bicoordinate Magnetic Maps in Sea Turtles Putman, N., et al. March 2011 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Scotland's Marine Atlas: Information for the National Marine Plan Baxter, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The ability of a benthic elasmobranch to discriminate between biological and artificial electric fields Kimber, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Coastal Marine Animal Surveys Kajiura, S. January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general EMF, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Bringing OTEC Environmental Assessments of the 1980s Up To 21st Century Oceanographic Standards Sansone, F., Comfort, C., Weng, K. December 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Impact of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Sub-sea Cables on Marine Organisms - The Current State of Knowledge Olsson, T., et al. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Magnetic Intensity Study: Long Island Replacement Cables Ocean Surveys Inc November 2010 Report N/A EMF N/A
Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace: Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories Copping, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Socio-economics
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates - FY2010 Progress Report Schultz, I., et al. October 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Review of Literature and Studies on Electro Magnetic Fields (EMF) Generated by Undersea Power Cables and Associated Influence on Marine Organisms Switzer, T., Meggitt, D. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Species: A Literature Review Slater, M. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Bayesian Integration for Marine Spatial Planning and Renewable Energy Siting Halsey, K., Goldfinger, C. September 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF N/A
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources Ward, J., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Potential OTEC Impacts in the Hawaiian Marine Environment Parke, M. January 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Environmental Impacts NOAA Office of Ocean & Coastal Resource Management January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth Shields, M., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) Lorraine, R., Tremlett, C. January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Navigation
Geomagnetic Imprinting: A Unifying Hypothesis of Long-Distance Natal Homing in Salmon and Sea Turtles Lohmann, K., Putman, N., Lohmann, C. December 2008 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Sea Turtles
Sub-Sea Power Cables And The Migration Behaviour Of The European Eel Langenfelt, I., Westerberg, H. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Compatibility of Magnetic Imprinting and Secular Variation Putman, N., Lohmann, K. July 2008 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
On the Electrodetection Threshold of Aquatic Vertebrates with Ampullary or Mucous Gland Electroreceptor Organs Peters, R., Eeuwes, L., Bretschneider, F. August 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Magnetic Maps in Animals: Nature's GPS Lohmann, K., Lohmann, C., Putman, N. July 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Sea Turtles
On Electric Fields of Power Lines and on Their Perception by Freshwater Fish Basov, B. April 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Marine Turtles use Geomagnetic Cues during Open-Sea Homing Luschi, P., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Field Based Experimental Studies of Marine Organism Response to Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Associated with Marine Renewable Energy Devices: Understanding the Environmental Impacts Gill, A. January 2007 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of Submarine Cables on the Marine Environment - A Literature Review Meißner, K., et al. September 2006 Report N/A EMF N/A
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Sea Turtles
Magnetic Orientation and Navigation in Marine Turtles, Lobsters, and Molluscs: Concepts and Conundrums Cain, S., et al. January 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Sea Turtles
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device N/A
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C. G., Holland, K. N., Papastamatiou, Y. P. December 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Long-Term Exposure of Several Marine Benthic Animals to Static Magnetic Fields Zettler, M., Bochert, R. September 2004 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Behaviour Of Trout (Salmo Trutta L.) Larvae And Fry In A Constant Magnetic Field Formicki, K., et al. July 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Ecological Functions and Adaptations of the Elasmobranch Electrosense Tricas, T., Sisneros, J. January 2004 Book Chapter N/A EMF Fish
Use of Multiple Orientation Cues by Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta Avens, L., Lohmann, K. August 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
The Environmental Effects of the Installation and Functioning of the Submarine SwePol Link HVDC Transmission Line: A Case Study of the Polish Marine Area of the Baltic Sea Andrulewicz, E., Napierska, D., Otremba, Z. June 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
True Navigation and Magnetic Maps in Spiny Lobsters Boles, L., Lohmann, K. January 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
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