Raptors

Birds of prey that hunt and feed on small animals.

Raptors

Raptors have keen vision that allows them to detect distant prey, which consists of small animals that are hunted with powerful talons and beaks. Most raptors supplement their diet with carrion, while vultures and condors eat carrion as their primary food source. Many species are considered apex predators. Raptors have wind-specific flight behaviors and typically hunt from perches by soaring during high winds. Soaring on thermals brings raptors to the same elevation as wind turbine blades, which can pose a high risk for collision. Raptor populations are at the greatest risk from human activities because they tend to be long-lived, mature late, and lay few eggs. Mitigation can include locating wind farms away from prime habitat, turning off turbines during peak raptor presence, dismantling specific turbines that are shown to cause raptor deaths, and upgrading old smaller turbines with new taller turbines. Power lines may also pose risk of electrocution because larger raptors may more easily connect conductive components and may be inclined to perch atop power poles.

Photo Credit: "White-tailed Eagle in Mull, Scotland" by Jacob Spinks

Total Results: 259
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Response of migrating raptors to an increasing number of wind farms Cabrera-Cruz, S., Villegas-Patraca, R. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., Whitfield, D., Kati, V. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Quantifying the Demographic Cost of Human-Related Mortality to a Raptor Population Hunt, W., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Victims and Lattice Towers - Frequency of Collision, Breeding Population and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Two Wind Farms in Brandenburg Durr, T., Rasran, L. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Distances Between Breeding Sites and White-Tailed Sea Eagles Found Dead Near Wind Turbines in Schleswig-Holstein Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Behavioural Observations of White-Tailed Sea Eagles in the Vicinity of Wind Turbines Grunkorn, T., et al. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Conclusions, Risk Assessment, Conflict Minimisation, Practical Recommendations, Need for Further Research Hötker, H., et al. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in North Frisia Rasran, L., Thomsen, K. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Calculation of the Probability of a Collision of Territorial Birds of Prey with Wind Turbines Rasran, L., Grajetzky, B., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Telemetric Monitoring of Montagu’s Harrier in Schleswig-Holstein Grajetzky, B., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Collisions of Birds of Prey with Wind Turbines - Analysis of the Circumstances Rasran, L., Durr, T. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Birds of Prey and Wind Farms Hötker, H., Krone, O., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of Individuals Lost Due to Wind Turbines on the Time of Occupying a Territory, the Survival of Breeding Territories and the Breeding Success of White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Case Studies) Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Satellite Tracking of White-Tailed Sea Eagles in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg Krone, O., Treu, G., Grunkorn, T. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Population Development and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Relation to the Development of Wind Energy Use in Germany Rasran, L., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in the Hellweg Börde, North Rhine-Westphalia Joest, R., Griesenbrock, B., Illner, H. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Match Between Soaring Modes of Black Kites and the Fine-Scale Distribution of Updrafts Santos, C., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Intense short-wavelength light triggers avoidance response by Red-tailed Hawks: A new tool for raptor diversion? Foss, C., Ronning, D., Merker, D. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
No Substitute for Survival: Perturbation Analyses Using a Golden Eagle Population Model Reveal Limits to Managing for Take Tack, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Diet Breadth and Reproduction in Relation to Fluctuations in Primary Prey Abundance in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin Preston, C., Jones, R., Horton, N. September 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Modelling golden eagle habitat selection and flight activity in their home ranges for safer wind farm planning Tikkanen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
AWWI Technical Report: Evaluating a Commercial-Ready Technology for Raptor Detection and Deterrence at a Wind Energy Facility in California Terrill, S., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels Thaker, M., Zambre, A., Bhosale, H. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities Hallingstad, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Raptors
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Estimating the Potential Mortality of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Due to Wind Energy Development on the Island of Crete (Greece) Xirouchakis, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors

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