Raptors

Birds of prey that hunt and feed on small animals.

Raptors

Raptors have keen vision that allows them to detect distant prey, which consists of small animals that are hunted with powerful talons and beaks. Most raptors supplement their diet with carrion, while vultures and condors eat carrion as their primary food source. Many species are considered apex predators. Raptors have wind-specific flight behaviors and typically hunt from perches by soaring during high winds. Soaring on thermals brings raptors to the same elevation as wind turbine blades, which can pose a high risk for collision. Raptor populations are at the greatest risk from human activities because they tend to be long-lived, mature late, and lay few eggs. Mitigation can include locating wind farms away from prime habitat, turning off turbines during peak raptor presence, dismantling specific turbines that are shown to cause raptor deaths, and upgrading old smaller turbines with new taller turbines. Power lines may also pose risk of electrocution because larger raptors may more easily connect conductive components and may be inclined to perch atop power poles.

Photo Credit: "White-tailed Eagle in Mull, Scotland" by Jacob Spinks

Total Results: 259
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Reintroduction of White-Tailed Eagles to the Republic of Ireland: A Case Study of Media Coverage Burke, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Reproductive output of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in relation to wind turbine proximity Fernandez-Bellon, D., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Response of migrating raptors to an increasing number of wind farms Cabrera-Cruz, S., Villegas-Patraca, R. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Satellite Tracking of White-Tailed Sea Eagles in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg Krone, O., Treu, G., Grunkorn, T. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Searches for dead birds in Smøla wind-power plant area 2011 - annual report Reitan, O. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Terrestrial Mammals
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Raptors
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Telemetric Monitoring of Montagu’s Harrier in Schleswig-Holstein Grajetzky, B., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Using a Collision Model to Design Safer Wind Turbine Rotors for Birds Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Using Spatial Analyses of Bearded Vulture Movements in Southern Africa to Inform Wind Turbine Placement Reid, T., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels Thaker, M., Zambre, A., Bhosale, H. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind farms in Thrace: Updating the proposal for proper site selection WWF Greece September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors

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