Raptors

Birds of prey that hunt and feed on large vertebrates compared to their size.

Raptors

 

Raptors include species of birds that primarily hunt and feed on large vertebrates compared to their size, have keen eyesight for detecting prey from far distances, strong feet with talons for grasping or killing prey, and powerful, curved beaks for tearing flesh. Many species of raptors are considered apex predators.

 

Raptors are at high risk for collision with wind turbine blades because they have wind-specific flight behaviors and typically soar during high winds, bringing them to the same elevation as wind turbine blades. Raptor populations are at the greatest risk of all birds from human activities because they tend to mature late, be long-lived, and lay few eggs.

Total Results: 266
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
Searches for dead birds in Smøla wind-power plant area 2011 - annual report Reitan, O. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos New, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
2009 Spring, Summer, and Fall Avian and Bat Surveys Stantec Consulting December 2009 Report Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Action on Multiple Fronts, Illegal Poisoning and Wind Farm Planning, is Required to Reverse the Decline of the Egyptian Vulture in Southern Spain Sanz-Aguilar, A., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Altamont Avian Plan: Status Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service By the Consortium of Altamont Owners Richard Curry Associates December 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-Construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2008 Jain, A., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Assessment And Prediction Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Energy Facilities In The Southeastern United States Nicholson, C., et al. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Automated Systems for Monitoring Avian Interactions with Utility Structures and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigative Measures Carlton, R., Harness, R. February 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Studies for the Proposed Dairy Hills Wind Project, Wyoming County, New York Young, D. Jr., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Sensitive Species Baseline Study Final Report: Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Umatilla County, Oregon Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Avian Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Young, D. Jr., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area Anderson, R., et al. August 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Avian Monitoring Studies at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: Results of a 4-Year Study Johnson, G., et al. September 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Raptors
Avian Monitoring Study and Risk Assessment for the Shiloh Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report Jones & Stokes Associates January 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Hopkins Ridge Wind Project, Columbia County, Washington: Final Report Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Baseline Ecological Studies for the Klondike Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. May 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Biological Effects of Repowering a Portion of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: The Diablo Winds Energy Project Smallwood, K. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Plan East Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Report West Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., Gritski, R., Luginbuhl, J. November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Birds and Windfarms: What are the Real Issues? Percival, S. April 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Collision Avoidance of Golden Eagles at Wind Farms Under the 'Band' Collision Risk Model Whitfield, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Demonstration Windpower Project St. Lawrence Bird Surveys Jacques Whitford Environment May 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Deriving Collision Avoidance Rates for Red Kites Milvus milvus Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Fall 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project: Draft Report Woodlot Alternatives November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Impact of Terrestrial Wind Farms on Diurnal Raptors: Developing a Spatial Vulnerability Index and Potential Vulnerability Maps Noguera, J., Pérez, I., Mínguez, E. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Interim Golden Eagle Technical Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Protocols; and Other Recommendations in Support of Golden Eagle Management and Permit Issuance Pagel, J., Whittington, D., Allen, G. February 2010 Report Birds, Raptors
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Based on Burrowing Owl Burrows, Raptor Flights, and Collisions with Wind Turbines Smallwood, K., Neher, L. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Range Muir, S., Smales, I. September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Australian Range Smales, I. December 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem Processes
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions Erickson, W., Johnson, G., Young, D. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using Spatial Analyses of Bearded Vulture Movements in Southern Africa to Inform Wind Turbine Placement Reid, T., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Workshop on Raptors and Energy Development Howard, R., Gore, J. January 1980 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Reintroduction of White-tailed Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla to Ireland Mee, A., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Reintroduction of White-Tailed Eagles to the Republic of Ireland: A Case Study of Media Coverage Burke, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Developing High-Resolution Spatial Data of Migration Corridors for Avian Species of Concern in Regions of High Potential Wind Development Katzner, T. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California, Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Year One Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Post-Construction Meteorological Tower Fatality Study at the Shiloh I Wind Project Site Solano County, California Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors

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