Raptors

Birds of prey that hunt and feed on small animals.

Raptors

Raptors have keen vision that allows them to detect distant prey, which consists of small animals that are hunted with powerful talons and beaks. Most raptors supplement their diet with carrion, while vultures and condors eat carrion as their primary food source. Many species are considered apex predators. Raptors have wind-specific flight behaviors and typically hunt from perches by soaring during high winds. Soaring on thermals brings raptors to the same elevation as wind turbine blades, which can pose a high risk for collision. Raptor populations are at the greatest risk from human activities because they tend to be long-lived, mature late, and lay few eggs. Mitigation can include locating wind farms away from prime habitat, turning off turbines during peak raptor presence, dismantling specific turbines that are shown to cause raptor deaths, and upgrading old smaller turbines with new taller turbines. Power lines may also pose risk of electrocution because larger raptors may more easily connect conductive components and may be inclined to perch atop power poles.

Photo Credit: "White-tailed Eagle in Mull, Scotland" by Jacob Spinks

Total Results: 263
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Raptors
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision Birds, Raptors
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision Birds, Raptors
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Raptor Baseline Studies in Energy Development Kennedy, P. June 1980 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind? Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Liechti, F. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Characteristics of Soaring Birds' Spring Migration over Inland SE Bulgaria Shurulinkov, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Fatality Rates at Old-Generation and Repowered Wind Turbines in California Smallwood, K., Karas, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Overlap Between Wind Power Plants and Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in Spain Telleria, J. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Using a Collision Model to Design Safer Wind Turbine Rotors for Birds Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Overview of raptor monitoring in Spain Zapata, J. January 2012 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos New, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Action on Multiple Fronts, Illegal Poisoning and Wind Farm Planning, is Required to Reverse the Decline of the Egyptian Vulture in Southern Spain Sanz-Aguilar, A., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Impact of Terrestrial Wind Farms on Diurnal Raptors: Developing a Spatial Vulnerability Index and Potential Vulnerability Maps Noguera, J., Pérez, I., Mínguez, E. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using Spatial Analyses of Bearded Vulture Movements in Southern Africa to Inform Wind Turbine Placement Reid, T., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Reintroduction of White-tailed Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla to Ireland Mee, A., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Reintroduction of White-Tailed Eagles to the Republic of Ireland: A Case Study of Media Coverage Burke, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Diet Breadth and Reproduction in Relation to Fluctuations in Primary Prey Abundance in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin Preston, C., Jones, R., Horton, N. September 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Match Between Soaring Modes of Black Kites and the Fine-Scale Distribution of Updrafts Santos, C., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
No Substitute for Survival: Perturbation Analyses Using a Golden Eagle Population Model Reveal Limits to Managing for Take Tack, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes Duerr, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development Braham, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Raptors
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Proximity to wind-power plants reduces the breeding success of the white-tailed eagle Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
How Ecofriendly are Wind Farms? Cohn, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Modeling autumn migration of a rare soaring raptor identifies new movement corridors in central Appalachia Dennhardt, A., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities Hallingstad, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels Thaker, M., Zambre, A., Bhosale, H. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
Response of migrating raptors to an increasing number of wind farms Cabrera-Cruz, S., Villegas-Patraca, R. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., Whitfield, D., Kati, V. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Addressing the factors that juxtapose raptors and wind turbines Hunt,G., Watson, J. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Reproductive output of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in relation to wind turbine proximity Fernandez-Bellon, D., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Quantifying the Demographic Cost of Human-Related Mortality to a Raptor Population Hunt, W., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Intense short-wavelength light triggers avoidance response by Red-tailed Hawks: A new tool for raptor diversion? Foss, C., Ronning, D., Merker, D. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Raptors

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