Legal and Policy

How governing bodies handle renewable energy projects through policy and legal frameworks.

Legal

When permitting a marine or wind energy project, there are local and federal agencies that must approve components of the project. A baseline assessment is typically required to identify any environmental concerns, including the presence of any threatened or endangered species. Depending on concerns and regulations, monitoring or mitigation may be required during or after construction. Regulators must ensure that the environment remains protected, but must also balance risks and unknowns with the costs to the project.

 

Policy

Experiences and research yield greater understanding of the potential environmental impacts of wind and marine energy devices, which determines the governing policies surrounding how new projects are approved and existing projects are assessed. Projects are typically judged by their level of risk, which is a combination of uncertainty and consequences. Uncertainty can be addressed through monitoring while consequences can be addressed through mitigation and proper siting. The wind energy industry is well-established and has plenty of commercial projects to conduct monitoring studies and increase understanding. The marine energy industry is relatively new with no commercial projects in the water, and devices are sited in high-energy environments that complicate monitoring, resulting in high uncertainty surrounding the environmental effects of these devices. The mission of Tethys is to make international research available to reduce uncertainty and help establish policy.

 

Photo Credit: "E2-M3A station" by European Ocean Observatory Network

Total Results: 58
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The determinants of wind energy growth in the United States: Drivers and barriers to state-level development Schumacher, K., Yang, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Consenting ocean energy projects: issues, challenges and opportunities O'Hagen, A., Wright, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Ensuring the sustainable development of ocean energy technologies through environmental assessment laws and policies Wright, G., Willsteed, E., O'Hagan, A. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
From Scotland to New Scotland: Constructing a Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy for Nova Scotia Sangiuliano, S., Mastrantonis, S. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Legal and Policy
Legal System for the Development of Marine Renewable Energy in China Chang, Y., Wang, N. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Pacific Region Marine Renewables Environmental Regulatory Workshop Report Copping, A., et al. March 2017 Workshop Article Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Assessing Environmental Effects (WREN): Adaptive Management White Paper Hanna, L., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Incorporating Data Uncertainty when Estimating Potential Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy Updated on Barriers and Recommendations O'Hagan, A. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Review of the Environmental Impacts for Marine and Hydrokinetic Projects to Inform Regulatory Permitting: Summary Findings from the 2015 Workshop on Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies, Washington, D.C. Baring-Gould, E., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wave energy in Europe: Views on experiences and progress to date O'Hagan, A., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas Stuiver, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Environment Effects of Ocean Energy Development & Its Management Countermeasures in China Ling, O. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Establishing a legal research agenda for ocean energy Wright, G., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland Dolman, S., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Learning from Early Commercial Tidal Energy Projects in the Puget Sound, Washington and the Pentland Firth, Scotland McMillin, N. January 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Renewables, Shipping, and Protected Species: A Vanishing Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Navigation
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Advancing the Environmentally Responsible Development of Offshore Wind Energy in New York State: A Regulatory Review and Stakeholder Perceptions New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Regulatory Introduction: Roles and Responsibilities within the Permitting Process West, A. May 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
RiCORE Project January 2015 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Resolving Issues with Environmental Impact Assessment of Marine Renewable Energy Installations Maclean, I., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
GHYDRO: Methodology Guide for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Technologies at Sea Lejart, M. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Integration at the Round Table: Marine Spatial Planning in Multi-Stakeholder Settings Olsen, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Better Together: The Implications of Tidal Resource Interactions from Resource Calculation to Policy and Governance Woolf, D., Easton, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Practical Experience of Sectoral Planning for Marine Renewable Energy Development in Scotland Davies, I., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Councils in Partnership: A Local Authority Perspective on Marine Spatial Planning Turnbull, S. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada [Presentation] Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Navigation
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Risk Assessment for Marine Vessel Traffic and Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Navigation
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.6 - Final Work Package Report: Consenting Procedures Review with Guidelines for Expansion to Larger Projects and Approval Process Streamlining, Incorporating the Findings of Interim Report and Feedback from Workshop D Simas, T., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Fishery Stakeholder Engagement and Marine Spatial Planning: Lessons from the Rhode Island Ocean SAMP and the Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan Nutters, H., Pinto da Silva, P. October 2012 Journal Article Socio-economics, Fishing, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.2: Reports of Interactive Meetings with Policy Makers Magagna, D., Rousseau, N. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Pilot Marine Spatial Plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters April 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas (MESMA) January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Benefits and Disadvantages of Co-Locating Windfarms and Marine Conservation Zones, with a Focus on Commercial Fishing Blyth-Skyrme, R. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Legal and Policy
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Applying Risk Science and Stakeholder Engagement to Overcome Environmental Barriers to Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects Copping, A., Anderson, R., Van Cleve, F. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Climate change and renewable energy from the ocean and tides: Calming the sea of regulatory uncertainty Leary, D., Esteban, M. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Weight-of-evidence evaluation in environmental assessment: Review of qualitative and quantitative approaches Linkov, I., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Weight of Evidence: A Review of Concept and Methods Weed, D. January 2005 Journal Article Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Adaptive Management and Ecological Restoration Murray, C., Marmorek, D. May 2003 Book Chapter Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Washington's Coastal Zone Management Program Washington State Department of Ecology February 2001 Report Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Large-Scale Management Experiments and Learning By Doing Walter, C., Holling, C. December 1990 Journal Article Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Assessment and Control of OTEC Ecological Impacts Wilde, P., Sandusky, J., Jassby, A. December 1978 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
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