Human Dimensions

The human dimensions of renewable energy, including impacts on local communities, society and economy.

Human Dimensions

The construction of marine renewable energy and wind energy projects will likely affect human activities both socially and economically at a variety of scales. Constructed devices may have impacts or perceived risk of impacts to people in the area. Evaluation of stakeholder perspectives, needs, and rights is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the device outweigh the cost to industry and residents. Common stakeholder concerns are loss of property value due to aesthetics or erosion, changes in livelihood and recreation, decrease in economic opportunity, or disruption of peace. Potential socio-economic benefits are creation of new industry jobs, increased tourism, or incorporation of new devices as visual art pieces.

Photo Credit: Deepwater Wind

Total Results: 1214
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy Updated on Barriers and Recommendations O'Hagan, A. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Navigation Risk Assessment Update: Fall of Warness Anatec November 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Navigation
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Assessing Environmental Effects (WREN): Adaptive Management White Paper Hanna, L., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment of Blue Carbon Resources in Scotland's Inshore Marine Protected Area Network Burrows, M., et al. January 2017 Report Human Dimensions, Climate Change
The Social Acceptance of Wind Energy: Where We Stand and the Path Ahead Ellis, G., Ferraro, G. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Siting and Designing Wind Farms in the Landscape - Version 3 Scottish Natural Heritage February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Visual Representation of Wind Farms - Version 2.2 February 2017 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume I - Report Narrative Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume II - Appendices Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030 Beiter, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement MarineSpace September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind energy developments and Natura 2000 European Union January 2011 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Recreation & Tourism
Thirty Years of North American Wind Energy Acceptance Research: What have we Learned? Rand, J., Hoen, B. June 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
South Korea's Plans for Tidal Power: When a "Green" Solution Creates More Problems Ko, Y., Schubert, D. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Environmental impact assessment: guide to procedures UK Communities and Local Government January 2000 Report Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
SOWFIA Deliverable 3.5 - Work Package 3 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment Experience for Wave Energy Conley, D., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.6 - Final Work Package Report: Consenting Procedures Review with Guidelines for Expansion to Larger Projects and Approval Process Streamlining, Incorporating the Findings of Interim Report and Feedback from Workshop D Simas, T., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.2: Reports of Interactive Meetings with Policy Makers Magagna, D., Rousseau, N. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Northeast Offshore Wind Regional Market Characterization: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind Grace, R., et al. October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
White Pines Wind Project: Natural Heritage Assessment and Environmental Impact Study Stantec Consulting May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Understanding the co-occurrence of large whales and commercial fixed gear fisheries off the west coast of the United States Saez, L., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Estimating humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entanglement rates on the basis of scar evidence Robbins, J., Mattila, D. May 2004 Report Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Whale Entanglements Off California Fact Sheet National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2014 Report Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.4: Interim Report on Barriers, Accelerators and Lessons Learned from all Wave Energy Site Experiences Arjona, E., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.1: Catalogue of Wave Energy Test Centres Mora-Figueroa, V., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
SOWFIA Deliverable D.3.3: Interim WP3 Report Magagna, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
SOWFIA Deliverable D 3.1: Inventory of Environmental Impact Monitoring Activities at Wave & Tidal Energy Sites in Europe Final Report Conley, D., et al. July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.4 Interim Report: Critical Environmental Impacts for Relevant Socio-economic Activities and Mitigation Measures Including Main Conclusions and Feedback Analysis from Workshop B and Analysis of the Stakeholder Survey Simas, T., et al. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.5: Report of Final Project Conference, Aalborg, Denmark Perez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Maiden Wind Farm Benton County, Washington Final SEPA Environmental Impact Statement and Final NEPA Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration, Benton County, Washington January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont Agency of Natural Resources April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Port Elizabeth Wind Energy Facility Avifaunal and Bat Impact Assessment Strugnell, L., Smallie, J., Patterson-Abrolat, C. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Norfolk Boreas Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Norfolk Vanguard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Report to Inform Scoping Royal Haskoning December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Revised Navigational Risk Assessment ESS Group, Inc. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Navigation
Fisheries Data Report South of Tuckernuck Area ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development Technical Support and General Environmental Studies Copping, A., Geerlofs, S. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Sector Analysis Report: Marine Renewable Energy October 2014 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Reducing Wind Curtailment through Transmission Expansion in a Wind Vision Future Jorgenson, J., Mai, T., Brinkman, G. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions
Scoping advice on information required in environmental impact assessment reports in relation to assessing risk to freshwater and diadromous fish and associated fisheries Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Fisheries
A Multi-National Project Management Framework Audit of a European Union Marine Spatial Planning Project Sangiuliano, S. March 2018 Report Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix I Aquatic Ecological Resource Characterization and Impact Assessment LimnoTech January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon Joshi, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Human Dimensions
The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines Chief Medical Officer of Heath of Ontario May 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Human Dimensions
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
LCRI 2015 Overview of LCRI Research 2008 to 2015 Jones, P., et al. June 2015 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Wind Farm - Kriegers Flak: Environmental Impact Assessment Sweden Offshore Wind AB January 2007 Report Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Mammals - Investigations and preparation of environmental impact assessment for Kriegers Flak Offshore Wind Farm Dietz, R., et al. June 2015 Report Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience Rein, C., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Local Impacts of Wind Farms on Property Values: A Spatial Difference-in-Differences Analysis Sunak, Y., Madlener, R. October 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Human Dimensions
Open Ocean Aquaculture and Offshore Wind Farms. A feasibility study on the multifunctional use of offshore wind farms and offshore mariculture in the North Sea area Buck, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Wave Energy in Clatsop County, OR: An Economic Impact Analysis Northwest Economic Research Center January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan 2008-2015: From Inception through Implementation Smythe, T., Andrescavage, N., Fox, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
National Policy Framework for Marine Renewable Energy within the United Kingdom Vantoch-Wood, A., et al. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
EMEC Billia Croo Test Site: Environmental Appraisal Xodus Group March 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Addressing conflicting spatial demands in MSP: Considerations for MSP planners Gee, K., et al. December 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
SOWFIA: Learning from Impact Assessments of European wave energy developments O'Hagan, A., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment

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