Human Dimensions

The human dimensions of renewable energy, including impacts on local communities, society and economy.

Human Dimensions

The construction of marine renewable energy and wind energy projects will likely affect human activities both socially and economically at a variety of scales. Constructed devices may have impacts or perceived risk of impacts to people in the area. Evaluation of stakeholder perspectives, needs, and rights is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the device outweigh the cost to industry and residents. Common stakeholder concerns are loss of property value due to aesthetics or erosion, changes in livelihood and recreation, decrease in economic opportunity, or disruption of peace. Potential socio-economic benefits are creation of new industry jobs, increased tourism, or incorporation of new devices as visual art pieces.

Photo Credit: Deepwater Wind

Total Results: 1214
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Inventory and Analysis of Coastal and Submerged Archaeological Site Occurrence on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf ICF International, Southeastern Archaeological Research, Davis Geoarchaeological Research November 2013 Report Human Dimensions
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
System Perspectives on Renewable Power Sandén, B. January 2014 Book Human Dimensions
Is EIA Part of the Wind Power Planning Problem? Smart, D., Stojanovic, T., Warren, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
State of the Nation's de Facto Marine Protected Areas Grober-Dunsmore, R., et al. May 2008 Report Marine Energy general Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
MERiFIC 6.1.2: Civil Society Involvement and Social Acceptability of Marine Energy Projects Delvaux, P., Rabuteau, Y., Stanley, K. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies Neary, V., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer Jacobson, D., High, C. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change
The Environmental Case for Wind Power in New Jersey Ridlington, E., Rusch, E. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Human Dimensions
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
An Integrated Visual Impact Assessment Model for Offshore Windfarm Development Depellegrin, D., Blažauskas, N., Egarter-Vigl, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Recreation & Tourism
Corrigendum: Environmental Implications of Large-Scale Adoption of Wind Power: A Scenario-Based Life Cycle Assessment Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Wind Energy and Environmental Assessments - A Hard Look at Two Forerunners' Approaches: Germany and the United States Geißler, G., Köppel, J., Gunther, P. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Wind Energy: Increasing Deployment, Rising Environmental Concerns Tabassum-Abbasi, et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Changes in Flow, Noise Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Community Benefits, Framing and the Social Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms: An Experimental Study in England Walker, B., Wiersma, B., Bailey, E. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests - A Synthesis Henningsson, M., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Recreation & Tourism, Stakeholder Engagement
Getting it Right for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis): A Last Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. August 2014 Journal Article Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Cautious but Committed: Moving Toward Adaptive Planning and Operation Strategies for Renewable Energy's Wildlife Implications Köppel, J., Dahmen, M., Helfrich, J. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Human Dimensions
Cautious but Committed - Towards a More Adaptive Environmental Planning Approach for Wind Energy? Köppel, J. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Energy Sources: A Review of Lifecycle Considerations Amponsah, N., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Lighting, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Developing and Applying a GIS-Assisted Approach to Evaluate Visual Impact in Wind Farms Molina-Ruiz, J., et al. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Decision Support Tools for Collaborative Marine Spatial Planning: Identifying Potential Sites for Tidal Energy Devices Around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland Janssen, R., Arciniegas, G., Alexander, K. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Underwater Noise Study Supporting Scottish Executive Strategic Environmental Assessment for Marine Renewables Richards, S., Harland, E., Jones, S. January 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Near-Shore Wind Power - Protected Seascapes, Environmentalists' Attitudes, and the Technocratic Planning Perspective Wolsink, M. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
A Life Cycle Co-Benefits Assessment of Wind Power in China Xue, B., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Knowledge Brokerage Context Factors - What Matters in Knowledge Exchange in Impact Assessment? Saarela, S., Söderman, T., Lyytimäki, J. August 2015 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Instream Tidal Power in North America: Environmental and Permitting Issues Devine Tarbell & Associates June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of Wave Energy Using GIS Based Analysis: The Case Study of Portugal Castro-Santos, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Integration at the Round Table: Marine Spatial Planning in Multi-Stakeholder Settings Olsen, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Energy White Paper - AWATEA AWATEA February 2014 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Will Offshore Energy Face "Fair Winds and Following Seas"?: Understanding the Factors Influencing Offshore Wind Acceptance Teisl, M., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Tidal Power Development in Maine: Stakeholder Identification and Perceptions of Engagement Johnson, T., Jansujwicz, J., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms: Methodology for Assessing the Marine Navigational Safety Risks of Offshore Wind Farms UK Department of Trade and Industry January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Wind Energy: A Reference Handbook Newton, D. November 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment Boezaart, A., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Valuing Public Preferences for Offshore Wind Power: A Choice Experimental Approach Krueger, A. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Visual Impact Assessment: There's More to it than Meets the Eye! Robotham, A., Quilleash, P., Hempstead, H. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
A Field Study on the Aesthetics of Small Wind Machines: A Preliminary Report Strojan, C., Lawrence, K., O'Donnell, D. January 1980 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Wheel in the Sky Keeps on Turnin': The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and its Impact on Wind Development Ballard, R. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions
Risks and Benefits of Wind Generated Electricity: Facts and Perceptions Bosley, P., Bosley, K. January 1992 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming Copeland, H., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions
A Group-Based Spatial Decision Support System for Wind Farm Site Selection in Northwest Ohio Gorsevski, P., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
A Net-Present Value Analysis for a Wind Turbine Purchase at a Small US College Johnson, N., Solomon, B. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Strategic Impact Management of Wind Power Projects Lima, F., Ferreira, P., Vieira, F. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Arguments for Using Population Models in Incidental Take Assessments for Endangered Species McGowan, C., Ryan, M. November 2010 Journal Article Human Dimensions
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Environmental Reporting in the Spanish Wind Energy Sector: An Institutional View Mosene, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas Obermeyer, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Key Criteria for Sustainable Wind Energy Planning - Lessons from an Institutional Perspective on the Impact Assessment Literature Thygesen, J., Agarwal, A. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
On Certain Problems Concerning Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Turbines in Scope of Acoustic Effects Wszolek, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Pennsylvania Game Commission Wind Energy Voluntary Cooperation Agreement: Amendment I Pennsylvania Game Commission July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions
Guidelines for Wind Energy and Wildlife Resource Management in Nebraska Nebraska Wind and Wildlife Working Group November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Analysis of Factors that Influence Development of Wind Power in Atlantic Canada: Application of Discrete Regression Modelling Chen, Q. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis for Siting of Small Wind Power Plants: A Case Study from Berlin Drews, L. January 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Policies and Measures for Protected Species in Wind Energy: An Assessment Between the U.S. and Germany Gartman, V. May 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Olivebranches and Idiot's Guides: Frameworks for Community Engagement in Australian Wind Farm Development Howard, T. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
The Development of World Oceans & Coasts and Concepts of Sustainability Stojanovic, T., Farmer, C. November 2013 Journal Article Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy - The Essential Legal Considerations Chang, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Public Perceptions and Externalities in Tidal Stream Energy: A Valuation for Policy Making Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy and Public Rights Todd, P. May 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The Regulation of Tidal Energy Development Off Nova Scotia: Navigating Foggy Waters Doelle, M., et al. September 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Tidal Power Project Wright, G. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Optimising Array Form for Energy Extraction and Environmental Benefit (EBAO) Presentation Bryden, I. January 2012 Presentation Marine Energy general Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Wind power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities Aitken, M. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions

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