Human Dimensions

The human dimensions of renewable energy, including impacts on local communities, society and economy.

Human Dimensions

The construction of marine renewable energy and wind energy projects will likely affect human activities both socially and economically at a variety of scales. Constructed devices may have impacts or perceived risk of impacts to people in the area. Evaluation of stakeholder perspectives, needs, and rights is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the device outweigh the cost to industry and residents. Common stakeholder concerns are loss of property value due to aesthetics or erosion, changes in livelihood and recreation, decrease in economic opportunity, or disruption of peace. Potential socio-economic benefits are creation of new industry jobs, increased tourism, or incorporation of new devices as visual art pieces.

Photo Credit: Deepwater Wind

Total Results: 1214
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
First Steps for Marine Life Impact Assessment of Hydrokinetic Turbines in the Arctic Birjadni, A., et al. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
First update of the Integrated Management Plan for the Marine Environment of the Barents Sea-Lofoten Area Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment January 2011 Report Human Dimensions
Fish are Attracted to Vessels Røstad, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Fish, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Fish, finances, and feasibility: Concerns about tidal energy development in the United States Dreyer, S., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Fisheries and marine renewable energy interactions: A summary report on a scoping workshop for the Marine Renewable Energy Knowledge Exchange Programme Rodwell, L., et al. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general Fish, Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Fisheries Data Report South of Tuckernuck Area ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Fisheries, Marine Conservation, Marine Renewable Energy and Displacement: A Fresh Approach Campbell, M. May 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Fishery Stakeholder Engagement and Marine Spatial Planning: Lessons from the Rhode Island Ocean SAMP and the Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan Nutters, H., Pinto da Silva, P. October 2012 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Floating offshore wind - Economic and ecological challenges of a TLP solution Kausche, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Florida Coastal Management Program Guide Florida Coastal Management Program February 2012 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Forensic Methods for Characterizing Watercraft from Watercraft-Induced Wounds on the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) Rommel, S., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Collision Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Fragmented authorities, institutional misalignments, and challenges to renewable energy transition: A case study of wind power curtailment in China Cai, Y., Aoyama, Y. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
From consultation to collaboration: A participatory framework for positive community engagement with wind energy projects in Ontario, Canada Jami, A., Walsh, P. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
From identification of compatibilities and conflicts to reaching marine spatial allocation agreements. Review of actions required and relevant tools and processes Kyriazi, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
From Social 'Acceptance' to Social 'Acceptability' of Wind Energy Projects: Towards a Territorial Perspective Fournis, Y., Fotrin, M. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland Dolman, S., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Full life cycle assessment of two surge wave energy converters Karan, H., Thomson, R., Harrison, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Funding the Development of the Ocean Energy Industry in Ireland Marine Renewables Industry Association February 2016 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Future policy implications of tidal energy array interactions Waldman, S., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gathering the Perspectives and Experience from Test Sites and Device Developers for Environmental and Socio Economic Impact Assessment of Wave Energy Magagna, D., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Getting it Right for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis): A Last Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. August 2014 Journal Article Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
GHG emissions and energy performance of offshore wind power Raadal, H., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
GHYDRO: Methodology Guide for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Technologies at Sea Lejart, M. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Global Wind Energy Policy and Development Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Globalization in the wind energy industry: contribution and economic impact of European companies Lacal-Arántegui, R. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions
Good Management Practices for Social and Economic Data Collection for Marine Renewable Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2019 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Governance challenges of marine renewable energy developments in the U.S. - Creating the enabling conditions for successful project development Lange, M., Page, G., Cummins, V. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Energy Sources: A Review of Lifecycle Considerations Amponsah, N., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change and the Transition from Coal to Low-Carbon Electricity Caldeira, K., Myhrvold, N. February 2012 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greening the Wind: Environmental and Social Considerations for Wind Power Development Ledec, G., Rapp, K., Aiello, R. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Gross Domestic Product US Bureau of Economic Analysis January 2008 Website Human Dimensions
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation & Tourism
Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms: Methodology for Assessing the Marine Navigational Safety Risks of Offshore Wind Farms UK Department of Trade and Industry January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Farms in Brazil: A Collaborative Governance Experience from Rio Grande Do Sul State Bernard, E., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Wind Energy and Wildlife Resource Management in Nebraska Nebraska Wind and Wildlife Working Group November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Guidelines on the Environmental Impact Assessment for Wind Farms Ivanović, S., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Handling the 'environmental knowledge paradox' in estuarine and coastal policy making de Jonge, V., Giebels, D. May 2015 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Harnessing our Ocean Wealth: An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland Government of Ireland July 2012 Report Human Dimensions
Harnessing the Ocean's Power: Opportunities in Renewable Ocean Energy Resources Griset, T. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan 2006 Hawaii Office of Planning December 2006 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan 2013 Hawaii Office of Planning July 2013 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Health Effects and Wind Turbines: A Review of the Literature Knopper, L., Ollson, C. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review Schmidt, J., Klokker, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project Draft EIS - Appendix F: Bat Acoustical Studies Taylor, K., Solick, D., Bay, K. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hidden outlaws in the forest? A legal and spatial analysis of onshore wind energy in Germany Bunzel, K., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Holberg Wind Energy Assessment Report British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm RPS Group March 2018 Website Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
How sustainable is sustainable marine spatial planning? Part II - The Portuguese experience Santos, C., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
How we all kill whales Moore, M. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Human dimensions of marine hydrokinetic energies: Current knowledge and research gaps Ruano-Chamorro, C., Castilla, J., Gelcich, S. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Human dimensions of tidal energy: A review of theories and frameworks Jenkins, L., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Human Dimensions Research on Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Development in Maine Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Human Perception of Sound from Wind Turbines Pedersen, E., Forssén, J., Waye, K. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Hydrodynamics of a Ship/Whale Collision Silber, G., Slutsky, J., Bettridge, S. May 2010 Journal Article Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Hydrokinetic Energy in the United States - Resources, Challenges, and Opportunities Previsic, M., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Hydrokinetic Power for Energy Access in Rural Ghana Miller, V., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Human Dimensions
Hydropower's Future, the Environment, and Global Electricity System Sternberg, R. February 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
ICES SGWTE Report 2011: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region Petruny-Parker, M., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impact of Climate Change on Wave Energy Resource: The Case of Menorca (Spain) Sierra, J., Casas-Prat, M., Campins, E. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions

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