Human Dimensions

The human dimensions of renewable energy, including impacts on local communities, society and economy.

Human Dimensions

The construction of marine renewable energy and wind energy projects will likely affect human activities both socially and economically at a variety of scales. Constructed devices may have impacts or perceived risk of impacts to people in the area. Evaluation of stakeholder perspectives, needs, and rights is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the device outweigh the cost to industry and residents. Common stakeholder concerns are loss of property value due to aesthetics or erosion, changes in livelihood and recreation, decrease in economic opportunity, or disruption of peace. Potential socio-economic benefits are creation of new industry jobs, increased tourism, or incorporation of new devices as visual art pieces.

Photo Credit: Deepwater Wind

Total Results: 1214
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Jimenez, T., Tegen, S. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Economic Modelling of the Potential of Wave Energy Hayward, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Economical Considerations of Renewable Electric Energy Production - Especially Development of Wave Energy Leijon, M., et al. July 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Economics: National Ocean Watch NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2012 Website Human Dimensions
Ecosystem service mapping in the Severn estuary and inner Bristol Channel Ashley, M. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Education and Training for Maritime Spatial Planners Calado, H., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of fishing rope strength on the severity of large whale entanglements Knowlton, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Billia Croo Test Site: Environmental Appraisal Xodus Group March 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site: Environmental Appraisal European Marine Energy Centre August 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Enablers Task Force on Marine Spatial Planning: Report to the Inter-Departmental Marine Coordination Group Enablers Task Force July 2015 Report Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Enabling Siting and Permitting of Marine Energy Devices, in Conjunction with Engineering Design and Deployment Strategies Copping, A., Geerlofs, S., Hanna, L. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Energy and socio-economic benefits from the development of wave energy in Greece Lavidas, G. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Energy droughts from variable renewable energy sources in European climates Raynaud, D., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions
Energy Performances and Life Cycle Assessment of an Italian Wind Farm Ardente, F., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Energy, Economic and Environmental Impact of Wind Power in Malaysia Faizal, M., Chelvan, R., Amirah, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Enhancing Local Distinctiveness Fosters Public Acceptance of Tidal Energy: A UK Case Study Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
ENOW Explorer National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2012 Website Human Dimensions
Ensuring the sustainable development of ocean energy technologies through environmental assessment laws and policies Wright, G., Willsteed, E., O'Hagan, A. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Entanglement is a costly life-history stage in large whales van der Hoop, J., Corkeron, P., Moore, M. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Entanglements of Baleen Whales in Fishing Gear off Southern California Heyning, J., Lewis, T. January 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Environmental activism and vertical‐axis wind turbine preferences in California Hui, I., Cain, B., Dabiri, J. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental and Human Dimensions of Ocean Renewable Energy Development Henkel, S., Conway, F., Boehlert, G. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Environmental aspects and economics of salinity gradient power (SGP) processes Papapetrou, M., Kumpavat, K. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Salinity Gradient Human Dimensions
Environmental aspects of designing multi-purpose offshore platforms in the scope of the FP7 TROPOS Project Lu, S., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Assessment for Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Project City of Hastings September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Collision Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Environmental Assessment for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion in Hawaii Comfort, C., Vega, L. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental assessment of intake alternatives for seawater reverse osmosis in the Arabian Gulf Al-Kaabi, A., Mackey, R. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Salinity Gradient Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Volume I: Environmental Assessment AECOM June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Development: Proceedings of a Scientific Workshop Polagye, B., et al. April 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Environmental impact analysis of power generation from biomass and wind farms in different locations Gao, C., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment for an OTEC Plant in Martinique Island Auvray, C., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment for Andmyran wind farm in Andøy, Nordland Bjerke, J., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment for Operational OTEC Platforms Sands, M. September 1979 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Guidance for Developers at the European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre March 2005 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods: An Overview of the Process for Wind Farms’ Different Phases - From Pre-construction to Operation Santos, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Of Wave Energy Converters: A Review Riefolo, L., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment: Gathering Experiences from Wave Energy Test Centres in Europe Greaves, D., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental impact assessment: guide to procedures UK Communities and Local Government January 2000 Report Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact for Offshore Wind Farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Approach Guermont, C., et al. October 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Learning from the Past to Optimise Future Monitoring Programmes Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests Henningsson, M. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant Powered by Renewable Energy Shahabi, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Management in Korea: Insights and Observations from the 2007 Australia-Korea Young Leaders Exchange Program Twyford, K. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Environmental Reporting in the Spanish Wind Energy Sector: An Institutional View Mosene, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental Scoping Report Killard Kavanagh, P. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Establishing a legal research agenda for ocean energy Wright, G., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Estimating Effects of Tidal Power Projects and Climate Change on Threatened and Endangered Marine Species and Their Food Web Busch, S., Greene, C., Good, T. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Estimating humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entanglement rates on the basis of scar evidence Robbins, J., Mattila, D. May 2004 Report Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Estimating the Political, Economic and Environmental Factors' Impact on the Installed Wind Capacity Development: A System GMM Approach Biresselioglu, M., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy deCastro, M., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Evaluating the Environmental Impacts and Energy Performance of a Wind Farm System Utilizing the Life-Cycle Assessment Method: A Practical Case Study Gomaa, M., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Evaluating the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective Gaydos, J., Thixton, S., Donatuto, J. December 2015 Journal Article Chemicals, Collision, Noise Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Evaluating Tradeoffs Among Ecosystem Services to Inform Marine Spatial Planning Lester, S., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Evaluation of Co-Existence Options of Marine Renewable Energy Projects in Japan Kularathna, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Evaluation of marine spatial planning Carneiro, G. January 2013 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Evaluation of Marine Spatial Planning: Valuing the Process, Knowing the Impacts Varjopuro, R. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Evaluation of Small Axial Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines for Remote Communities Anyi, M., Kirke, B. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Human Dimensions
Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the 20 MW Wind Power Project in Tejona, Costa Rica Report of Phase 2 of the Tejona Wind Power Project (TWPP) van Hulle, F., et al. February 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Examining the Social Acceptance of Wind Energy: Practical Guidelines for Onshore Wind Project Development in France Enevoldsen, P., Sovacool, B. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Experimental Investigation of Floating Wave Energy Converters for Coastal Protection Purpose Zanuttigh, B., Angelelli, E. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Exploring landowners' post-construction changes in perceptions of wind energy in Michigan Mills, S., Bessette, D., Smith, H. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Exploring technologically, temporally and geographically-sensitive life cycle inventories for wind turbines: A parameterized model for Denmark Sacchi, R., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Exploring the Impact of Technology Development and Adoption for Sustainable Hydroelectric Power and Storage Technologies in the Pacific Northwest United States Cowan, K., Daim, T., Anderson, T. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan Kageyama, T., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
External Effects of Renewable Energy Projects: Life Cycle Analysis-based Approach Salnikova, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Factors influencing citizens' acceptance and non-acceptance of wind energy in Germany Langer, K., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Feasibility and LCA for a Wave Dragon platform with wind turbines Soerensen, H.C., et al. June 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Fencing in the bay? Place attachment, social representations of energy technologies and the protection of restorative environments Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy

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