Human Dimensions

The human dimensions of renewable energy, including impacts on local communities, society and economy.

Human Dimensions

The construction of marine renewable energy and wind energy projects will likely affect human activities both socially and economically at a variety of scales. Constructed devices may have impacts or perceived risk of impacts to people in the area. Evaluation of stakeholder perspectives, needs, and rights is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the device outweigh the cost to industry and residents. Common stakeholder concerns are loss of property value due to aesthetics or erosion, changes in livelihood and recreation, decrease in economic opportunity, or disruption of peace. Potential socio-economic benefits are creation of new industry jobs, increased tourism, or incorporation of new devices as visual art pieces.

Photo Credit: Deepwater Wind

Total Results: 1207
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Analysis of the environmental issues concerning the deployment of an OTEC power plant in Martinique Devault, D., Péné-Annette, A. November 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals Human Dimensions
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Human Dimensions
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions
Appendix I Aquatic Ecological Resource Characterization and Impact Assessment LimnoTech January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Ecosystem, Human Dimensions
Applying Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Outlining Ecosystem Effects of Ocean Energy Technologies Hammar, L., Gullström, M. January 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Applying Risk Science and Stakeholder Engagement to Overcome Environmental Barriers to Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects Copping, A., Anderson, R., Van Cleve, F. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Arguments for Using Population Models in Incidental Take Assessments for Endangered Species McGowan, C., Ryan, M. November 2010 Journal Article Human Dimensions
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Assessing Environmental Effects (WREN): Adaptive Management White Paper Hanna, L., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general EMF Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fishing
Assessing the determinants of local acceptability of wind-farm investment: A choice experiment in the Greek Aegean Islands Dimitropoulos, A., Kontoleon, A. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions
Assessing the Environmental Impact of the Annapolis Tidal Power Project Tidmarsh, W. January 1984 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the Impact of Climate Conditions on Harnessing Coastal (Offshore) Wind Energy Akter, S., Loo, J., Hannan, M. November 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Macro-Economic Benefit of Installing a Farm of Oscillating Water Columns in Scotland and Portugal Draycott, S., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Human Dimensions
Assessing use-use interactions at sea: A theoretical framework for spatial decision support tools facilitating co-location in maritime spatial planning Bonnevie, I., Hansen, H., Schrøder, L. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessment and Control of OTEC Ecological Impacts Wilde, P., Sandusky, J., Jassby, A. December 1978 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Assessment of Blue Carbon Resources in Scotland's Inshore Marine Protected Area Network Burrows, M., et al. January 2017 Report Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Assessment of Electromagnetic Interference Effects of the Solano Windfarm: Final Report Sengupta, D., Ferris, J., Senior, T. November 1981 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Muralidharan, S. February 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of a Wind Farm in Central Greece during its Life Cycle Abeliotis, K., Pactiti, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessment of the Potential for Conflict between Existing Ocean Space Use and Renewable Energy Development off the Coast of Oregon Sullivan, C. June 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions
Assessment of the Potential of Tidal Power from Minas Passage and Minas Basin Karsten, R., et al. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
At the Heart of a Sustainable Energy Transition: The Public Acceptability of Energy Projects Perlaviciute, G., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site Environmental Impact Statement Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
Attitudes of U.S. Wind Turbine Neighbors: Analysis of a Nationwide Survey Hoen, B., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Auditory Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Subjects with Wind Turbine Noise Maffei, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions
Basic Plan on Ocean Policy Headquarters for Ocean Policy April 2013 Report Human Dimensions
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm: Synergies with Coastal Defence Abanades, J. March 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Beach response to wave energy converter farms acting as coastal defence Mendoza, E., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Beauty in motion: Expectations, attitudes, and values of wind energy development in the rural U.S Fergen, J., Jacquet, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Benefits and Disadvantages of Co-Locating Windfarms and Marine Conservation Zones, with a Focus on Commercial Fishing Blyth-Skyrme, R. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fishing, Legal and Policy
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Better Together: The Implications of Tidal Resource Interactions from Resource Calculation to Policy and Governance Woolf, D., Easton, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Biodiversity and wind energy in Kenya: Revealing landscape and wind turbine perceptions in the world’s wildlife capital Nordman, E., Mutinda, J. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Aesthetics
Biodiversity Issues Should Be Better Taken into Account in the Energy Transition Hallosserie, A., et al. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Biogeographic Assessments: A Framework for Information Synthesis in Marine Spatial Planning Caldow, C., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System Environmental Report/Construction and Operations Plan Tetra Tech Inc. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy Zanuttigh, B., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Bringing OTEC Environmental Assessments of the 1980s Up To 21st Century Oceanographic Standards Sansone, F., Comfort, C., Weng, K. December 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Building the Blue Economy: The Role of Marine Spatial Planning in Facilitating Offshore Renewable Energy Development Young, M. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Can Classical Location Theory Apply to Sea Space? Zaucha, J. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Capturing Energy from the Motion of the Ocean in a Crowded Sea Plummer, M., Feist, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Carbon or Cash: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Environmental and Economic Messages on Attitudes about Wind Energy in the United States Peterson, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms - A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms Gerdes, G., Tiedemann, A., Zeelenberg, S. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Case Study: The Royal Norwegian Navy Underwater Acoustic Noise Measurement of Vessels Brüel & Kjær January 2009 Report Noise Human Dimensions, Navigation
Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses Kim, C., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Cautious but Committed - Towards a More Adaptive Environmental Planning Approach for Wind Energy? Köppel, J. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Cautious but Committed: Moving Toward Adaptive Planning and Operation Strategies for Renewable Energy's Wildlife Implications Köppel, J., Dahmen, M., Helfrich, J. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Human Dimensions
Cetacean entanglement in fishing gear Hofman R. March 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Fishing
Chains of trust: Energy justice, public engagement, and the first offshore wind farm in the United States Dwyer, J., Bidwell, D. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Challenges and Opportunities for Ecosystem-Based Management and Marine Spatial Planning in the Irish Sea O'Higgins, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning Greenhill, L. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges and Opportunities in Tidal and Wave Power Jacobson, P., Rao, K. December 2011 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges of decommissioning offshore wind farms: Overview of the European experience Topham, E., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Challenges, Insights and Perspectives Associated with using Social-Ecological Science for Marine Conservation Leenhardt, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Human Dimensions
Changes in Fish Catch Rates in the Presence of Air Gun Sounds in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Streever, B., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Noise Human Dimensions, Fishing
Changing Tides: Acceptability, Support, and Perceptions of Tidal Energy in the United States Dreyer, S., Polis, H., Jenkins, L. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Characterizing Large River Sounds: Providing Context for Understanding the Environmental Effects of Noise Produced by Hydrokinetic Turbines Bevelhimer, M., Deng, D., Scherelis, C. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Noise Human Dimensions, Navigation
Characterizing the Mean Flow Field in Rivers for Resource and Environmental Impact Assessments of Hydrokinetic Energy Generation Sites Petrie, J., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Hatch, L., et al. November 2008 Journal Article Noise Human Dimensions, Navigation
Charting Progress 2: An Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Marine Monitoring Assessment Strategy Community July 2010 Report Human Dimensions
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Human Dimensions
China Funds Development Of New Tidal Current Energy Devices Yanbo, G., Yan, L., Changlei, M. April 2011 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Clean energy that safeguards ecosystems and livelihoods: Integrated assessments to unleash full sustainable potential for renewable energy Athanas, A., McCormick, N. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Ecosystem, Human Dimensions
Climate change and renewable energy from the ocean and tides: Calming the sea of regulatory uncertainty Leary, D., Esteban, M. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Climate Change Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Doney, S., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Ecosystem, Human Dimensions
Climate Sensitivity of Marine Energy Harrison, G., Wallace, A. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Climatic Impacts of Wind Power Miller, L., Keith, D. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Co-benefits analysis on climate change and environmental effects of wind-power: A case study from Xinjiang, China Ma, Z., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Co-Creation of Individual-Based Models by Practitioners and Modellers to Inform Environmental Decision-Making Wood, K., Stillman, R., Goss-Custard, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping Stelzenmüller, V., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Fishing
Co-location opportunities for renewable energies and aquaculture facilities in the Canary Archipelago Weiss, C., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-production in distributed generation: renewable energy and creating space for fitting infrastructure within landscapes Wolsink, M. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Legal and Policy
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Data Registry National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration March 2014 Website Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Legal Considerations Mengerink, K., Armsby, M., Diamond, J. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Commercial Ocean Fishing Statistics for California California Department of Fish and Wildlife January 2000 Website Human Dimensions, Fishing

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