Human Dimensions

The human dimensions of renewable energy, including impacts on local communities, society and economy.

Human Dimensions

The construction of marine renewable energy and wind energy projects will likely affect human activities both socially and economically at a variety of scales. Constructed devices may have impacts or perceived risk of impacts to people in the area. Evaluation of stakeholder perspectives, needs, and rights is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the device outweigh the cost to industry and residents. Common stakeholder concerns are loss of property value due to aesthetics or erosion, changes in livelihood and recreation, decrease in economic opportunity, or disruption of peace. Potential socio-economic benefits are creation of new industry jobs, increased tourism, or incorporation of new devices as visual art pieces.

Photo Credit: Deepwater Wind

Total Results: 1210
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Framework for an International Marine Energy Roadmap Mueller, M., et al. January 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom Kolios, A., Read, G. September 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
A Techno-Economic Analysis of Tidal Energy Technology Johnstone, C., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
The Muskeget Channel Tidal Energy Project: A Unique Case Study in the Licensing and Permitting of a Tidal Energy Project in Massachusetts Barrett, S. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Benchmark for Life Cycle Air Emissions and Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Hydrokinetic Energy Extraction using Life Cycle Assessment Miller, V., Landis, A., Schaefer, L. March 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
A Vessel Noise Budget for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA) Bassett, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Absolute Probability Estimates of Lethal Vessel Strikes to North Atlantic Right Whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf van der Hoop, J., Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. April 2012 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace: Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories Copping, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Human Dimensions
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund (MALSF): Achievements and Challenges for the Future Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund March 2010 Report Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Human Dimensions
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development Shumchenia, E., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
An Assessment of the Marine Renewable Energy Sector in Canada - Now and in the Future Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Human Dimensions
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
An Introduction to Socio-Economic Assessment within a Marine Strategy Framework Turner, R., et al. March 2010 Report Human Dimensions
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Human Dimensions
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site Environmental Impact Statement Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms - A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms Gerdes, G., Tiedemann, A., Zeelenberg, S. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses Kim, C., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges and Opportunities in Tidal and Wave Power Jacobson, P., Rao, K. December 2011 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Hatch, L., et al. November 2008 Journal Article Noise Human Dimensions, Navigation
Charting Progress 2: An Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Marine Monitoring Assessment Strategy Community July 2010 Report Human Dimensions
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Human Dimensions
China Funds Development Of New Tidal Current Energy Devices Yanbo, G., Yan, L., Changlei, M. April 2011 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Data Registry National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration March 2014 Website Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Legal Considerations Mengerink, K., Armsby, M., Diamond, J. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Commercial Ocean Fishing Statistics for California California Department of Fish and Wildlife January 2000 Website Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Community Profiles for West Coast and North Pacific Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center November 2007 Report Fish, Human Dimensions
Comparison of Energy Systems Using Life Cycle Assessment World Energy Council July 2004 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Comprehensive Planning, Dominant-Use Zones, and User Rights: A New Era in Ocean Governance Sanchirico, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Concurrent and Legacy Economic and Environmental Impacts from Establishing a Marine Energy Sector in Scotland Allan, G., et al. July 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Consenting, EIA and HRA Guidance for Marine Renewable Energy Developments in Scotland European Marine Energy Centre, Xodus Group August 2010 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Consistency Conflicts and Federalism Choice: Marine Spatial Planning Beyond the States' Territorial Seas Burger, M. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Delivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit Hassan, G., Capener, P. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
Dynamic Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Renewable Energy Technologies Pehnt, M. January 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ENOW Explorer National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2012 Website Human Dimensions
Ecological and Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Economic Modelling of the Potential of Wave Energy Hayward, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Economical Considerations of Renewable Electric Energy Production - Especially Development of Wave Energy Leijon, M., et al. July 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Economics: National Ocean Watch NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2012 Website Human Dimensions
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Energy Performances and Life Cycle Assessment of an Italian Wind Farm Ardente, F., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Assessment for Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Project City of Hastings September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Environmental Assessment for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion in Hawaii Comfort, C., Vega, L. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Development: Proceedings of a Scientific Workshop Polagye, B., et al. April 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Environmental Impact Assessment Guidance for Developers at the European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre March 2005 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Human Dimensions
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Environmental Management in Korea: Insights and Observations from the 2007 Australia-Korea Young Leaders Exchange Program Twyford, K. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Environmental Scoping Report Killard Kavanagh, P. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Environmental and Human Dimensions of Ocean Renewable Energy Development Henkel, S., Conway, F., Boehlert, G. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Estimating Effects of Tidal Power Projects and Climate Change on Threatened and Endangered Marine Species and Their Food Web Busch, S., Greene, C., Good, T. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Evaluation of Small Axial Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines for Remote Communities Anyi, M., Kirke, B. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Human Dimensions
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Exploring the Impact of Technology Development and Adoption for Sustainable Hydroelectric Power and Storage Technologies in the Pacific Northwest United States Cowan, K., Daim, T., Anderson, T. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
Fish are Attracted to Vessels Røstad, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Fish, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Florida Coastal Management Program Guide Florida Coastal Management Program February 2012 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Forensic Methods for Characterizing Watercraft from Watercraft-Induced Wounds on the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) Rommel, S., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change and the Transition from Coal to Low-Carbon Electricity Caldeira, K., Myhrvold, N. February 2012 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Gross Domestic Product US Bureau of Economic Analysis January 2008 Website Human Dimensions
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation & Tourism
Offshore Renewable Energy Installations (OREIs) - Guidance on UK Navigational Practice, Safety and Emergency Response Issues Maritime Maritime and Coastguard Agency January 2004 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Navigation
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions

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