Fish

Resident fish living near the device and migratory fish passing through the area.

Migratory Fish

Migratory fish can be defined as fish that follow predictable movements and migration patterns throughout their life cycle. A classic example of a migratory fish would be salmon, which leave their native rivers and springs towards the ocean as juveniles, but return on a yearly basis to spawn in their native rivers. While these fish are not present during all times of operation, when they are they can be in great numbers. The risk posed by offshore renewable energy stressors on migratory fish depends on various factors such as the affected species, life stage, population level of affected species, and scale of project. The most important issue pertaining to migratory fish is to understand the dynamic effects of the technology, assessing the acoustic outputs of the devices and evaluating electromagnetic fields associated with energy generation.

Resident Fish

Resident fish can be defined as those saltwater fish that do not migrate. It is important to note that while these fish do not undergo long distance migrations, they do have daily, tidal, and seasonal movements. Examples of resident fish can be sharks and rays, rockfish or flatfish. Resident fish can be affected by the same stressors as migratory fish including dynamic physical presence, acoustic output of the device and EMF. While they can be affected by the same stressors as migratory fish, resident fish may be more susceptible to exposure which can potentially increase their risks.

Total Results: 593
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A comparison of the fish assemblages associated with an oil/gas pipeline and adjacent seafloor in the Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California Bight Love, M., York, A. July 2005 Journal Article Static Device Fish
A Framework for Regulating Underwater Noise During Pile Driving Andersson, M., et al. August 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
A General Theory on Fish Aggregation to Floating Objects: An Alternative to the Meeting Point Hypothesis Castro, J., Santiago, J., Santana-Ortega, A. June 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
A Marine Biological Underwater Depuration System (MUDS) to Process Waste Waters Cattaneo-Vietti, R., et al. July 2003 Journal Article Static Device Fish
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A New Tool to Forecast Fish Movement and Passage Goodwin, R., et al. August 2007 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
A Noisy Spring: The Impact of Globally Rising Underwater Sound Levels on Fish Slabbekoorn, H., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Noise Fish
A Pilot Study of the Distribution and Abundances of Rockfishes in Relation to Natural Environmental Factors and an Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platform off the Coast of Southern California Love, M., et al. September 1994 Journal Article Static Device Fish
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Probabilistic Model for Hydrokinetic Turbine Collision Risks: Exploring Impacts on Fish Hammar, L., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
A Review of Studies Related to the Effects of Propeller-Type Turbine Passage on Fish Early Life Stages Cada, G. January 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
A Review of the Likely Effects of Climate Change on Anadromous Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar and Brown Trout Salmo trutta, with Particular Reference to Water Temperature and Flow Jonsson, B., Jonsson, N. December 2009 Journal Article Fish, Socio-economics
A Review of the Status of Atlantic Sturgeon in Canada, with Comparisons to Populations in the United States and Europe Dadswell, M. May 2006 Journal Article Fish
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Sound Approach to Assessing the Impact of Underwater Noise on Marine Fishes and Invertebrates Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2017 Journal Article Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
A Tool to Predict the Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Fish Bruintjes, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Noise Fish
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Acoustic Effects of Tidal Energy May 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Acoustic Impact Assessment of Offshore Energy Project January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Acoustic Tracking of Fish Movements in the Minas Passage and FORCE Demonstration Area: Pre-Turbine Baseline Studies (2011-2013) Redden, A., Stokesbury, M. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Adaptable Monitoring Package (AMP) January 2015 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Admiralty Inlet Final Environmental Assessment Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
An agent-based model to predict fish collisions with tidal stream turbines Rossington, K., Benson, T. February 2019 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Fish, Marine Mammals
An Estimation Of Survival And Injury Of Fish Passed Through The Hydro Green Energy Hydrokinetic System, And A Characterization Of Fish Entrainment Potential At The Mississippi Lock And Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Projects Normandeau Associates December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
An Inherited Magnetic Map Guides Ocean Navigation in Juvenile Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2014 Journal Article EMF Fish
An International Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Copping, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An overview of fish bioacoustics and the impacts of anthropogenic sounds on fishes Popper, A., Hawkins, A. March 2019 Journal Article Noise Fish
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Anthropogenic Sound: Effects on the Behavior and Physiology of Fishes Popper, A., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Noise Fish
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Applying Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Outlining Ecosystem Effects of Ocean Energy Technologies Hammar, L., Gullström, M. January 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Appropriateness of Existing Monitoring Studies for the Fundy Tidal Energy Project and Considerations for Monitoring Commercial Scale Scenarios Fisheries and Oceans Canada June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Fish
Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis Ren, H., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Are High Densities of Fishes at Artificial Reefs the Result of Habitat Limitation or Behavioral Preference? Bohnsack, J. March 1989 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Are magnetic and electromagnetic fields of anthropogenic origin potential threats to early life stages of fish? Fey, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article EMF Fish
Are Southern California Oil and Gas Platforms Essential Fish Habitat Helvey, M. January 2002 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Habitats for Marine and Freshwater Fisheries Seaman, W. Jr. October 1991 Book Chapter Static Device Fish
Artificial Reef Effect and Fouling Impacts on Offshore Wave Power Foundations and Buoys - A Pilot Study Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources Ward, J., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessing the Environmental Impact of the Annapolis Tidal Power Project Tidmarsh, W. January 1984 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Assessing the State of Knowledge of Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development and Operation on Non-Volant Terrestrial and Marine Wildlife Lovich, J., Ennen, J. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Fish and Wildlife Presence Near Two River Instream Energy Conversion Devices in the Kvichak River, Alaska in 2014 Nemeth, M., Priest, J., Patterson, H. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Static Device Fish
Assessment of Potential Impact of Electromagnetic Fields from Undersea Cable on Migratory Fish Behavior Kavet, R., et al. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction Stokesbury, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
Attraction To and Avoidance of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines by Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. May 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Static Device Fish
Auditory Sensitivity in Aquatic Animals Lucke, K., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Automatic optical detection and classification of marine animals around MHK converters using machine vision Brunton, S. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general Fish
Barging Effects On Sensory Systems Of Chinook Salmon Smolts Halvorsen, M., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Characterization and Monitoring of Oregon State University’s Ocean Test Facility Site Henkel, S., Ciannelli, L., Barth, J. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Data and Power Analysis for the OWET Dungeness Crab and Fish Baseline Study Terrill, S., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Bayesian Integration for Marine Spatial Planning and Renewable Energy Siting September 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Behavioral responses by migrating juvenile salmonids to a subsea high-voltage DC power cable Wyman, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article EMF Fish
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Behavioral Responses of Representative Freshwater Fish Species to Electromagnetic Fields Bevelhimer, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article EMF Fish
Behaviour Of Trout (Salmo Trutta L.) Larvae And Fry In A Constant Magnetic Field Formicki, K., et al. July 2004 Journal Article EMF Fish
Behavioural Reactions of Cod (Gadus morhua) and Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) to Sound Resembling Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Mueller, C. December 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Bioelectric Fields of Marine Organisms: Voltage and Frequency Contributions to Detectability by Electroreceptive Predators Bedore, C., Kajiura, S. April 2013 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Volume 2 - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Livesey, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Catch Patterns of the German Baltic Sea Trawl Fleet Targeting Demersal Species Between 2006 and 2009 Probst, W., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Fish
CEDREN Final Report Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Fish
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Changes in Vertical Fish Distributions Near a Hydrokinetic Device in Cobscook Bay, Maine, USA Staines, G., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Characterization of Benthic Conditions and Organisms on the Oregon South Coast in areas targeted for Wave Energy Development Henkel, S. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Characterization of the Tanana River at Nenana, Alaska, to Determine the Important Factors Affecting Site Selection, Deployment, and Operation of Hydrokinetic Devices to Generate Power Johnson, J., et al. March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Characterizing the first wave of fish and invertebrate colonization on a new offshore petroleum platform Todd, V., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat

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